Human

Alkaloids

Codeine Quinine

Phenolics

Lignin Salicin

Tetrahydrocannabinol

Terpenoids

Camphor

Menthol

Rubber

Opium poppy Quinine tree

Woody plants Willow tree Marijuana

Camphor tree

Mints and eucalyptus tree

Rubber tree

Narcotic pain reliever; cough suppressant Used to treat malaria

Used for hardwood furniture and baseball bats Aspirin precursor

Treatment for glaucoma; nausea suppressant

Component of medicinal oils and disinfectants

Strong aroma; used in cough medicines

Rubber tires, rubber bands, and other commercial products proteins, chlorophylls, cytochromes, carotenoids, fatty acids, oils, and waxes.

Metabolic processes not required for normal growth and development are generally referred to as secondary metabolism. Although not essential, many of the products from secondary metabolism enable plants to survive and persist under special conditions. These products provide the plant with unique colors, aromas, poisons, and other compounds that may attract or deter other organisms or give them a competitive edge in nature. Humans have exploited many secondary compounds from plants for medicinal, culinary, or other purposes. It has been estimated that 50,000 to 100,000 such compounds exist in plants with only a few thousand of these thus far having been identified. Secondary metabolic products may be derived from modification of amino acids and related compounds to produce alkaloids or through specialized conversions such as the shikimic acid pathway (phenolics) and mevalonic acid pathway (terpenoids). Examples of these compounds are shown in Table 10.3. Lignin, which is a component of secondary cell walls, is, for example, synthesized through the shikimic acid pathway. Because it is hard to digest and is toxic to some predators, it protects plants from herbivorous animals.

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Baseball For Boys

Baseball For Boys

Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.

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