Protein Structure

The Nature of Life 25

Protein Structure Quaternary
A. primary structure B. secondary structure C. tertiary structure D. quaternary structure

Figure 2.13 The four levels of protein structure. The example shown is for hemoglobin. A. The primary structure consists of a chain of amino acids bonded together. B. As the amino acid chain grows, rotation of the chain occurs to form an alpha helix, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. C. The coil or helix forms further, forming a somewhat globular structure. D. Several chains combine into a single functional protein molecule. After Caret, R. L., K. J. Denniston, and J. J. Topping, 1993. Organic and Biological Chemistry. Copyright 1993 by Wm C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.

Figure 2.13 The four levels of protein structure. The example shown is for hemoglobin. A. The primary structure consists of a chain of amino acids bonded together. B. As the amino acid chain grows, rotation of the chain occurs to form an alpha helix, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. C. The coil or helix forms further, forming a somewhat globular structure. D. Several chains combine into a single functional protein molecule. After Caret, R. L., K. J. Denniston, and J. J. Topping, 1993. Organic and Biological Chemistry. Copyright 1993 by Wm C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA.

enzyme + substrate enzyme - substrate transition state complex

enzyme + substrate enzyme - substrate transition state complex

enzyme - product enzyme + product complex

enzyme - product enzyme + product complex

Figure 2.14 How an enzyme facilitates a reaction. A. An enzyme and the raw material (substrate) for which it is specific. B. The substrate fits into the active site on the enzyme. C. The enzyme then changes shape, putting stress on the linkage between parts of the substrate. D. The bonds (linkage) are broken. E. The enzyme returns to its original shape, and the products are released. When an enzyme is combining substrates, the events shown proceed in reverse.

Stern-Jansky-Bidlack: I 2. The Nature of Life I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

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