F

Fabaceae, 470-72

FAD/FADH2, 187, 188, 190-91

Fairy rings, 368

False morel mushrooms, 361

False Solomon's seal, 136

Fascicle, 423-24

Fatty acids, 22

Fava bean, 591

Fenestraria, 121

Fennel, 477

Ferns, 383, 397, 410-17 Age of Ferns, 414 alternation of generations, 384 Boston, 271, 414 bracken fern, 416 Brazilian tree, 416 chain fern, 417 chemotaxic response, 213 clover fern, 412 five-finger, 417 fossils, 277, 414, 415 fronds, 410, 411, 412, 413 goldback, 416-17 Hawaiian tree, 273

human and ecological relevance,

414-17 lady, 416 licorice, 416 male fern, 416 mosquito fern, 417 oriental water fern, 416 structure and form, 410, 411 tropical tree fern, 197, 422 Ferredoxin (Fd), 180 Ferrocactus, 164 Fertilization, 133, 228 in angiosperms, 447-48 double, 447 of fruits, 134-35 self-fertilizing, 241 Fertilizer, 498, 589 Fetal testing, research on, 235 Fibers, 5, 6, 56, 57

from monocots, 100 in root system, 66, 67 in stems, 90 Ficus, 65, 74, 266 Fiddlehead, 410, 412, 415 Fig, 65, 144, 266

tropical, 65, 73, 75 Figwort Family, 493 Filaments, 133, 135, 329

in bacteria, 301, 312-13 Filaree, 146 Fir, 434, 510 balsam, 434

Douglas, 28, 97, 434, 501, 515 replacement in burned areas, 501 white, 515 Fire ecology, 501-2, 515 Fireweed, 136

polyploid, 282 First filial generation (F1), 242, 243 First law of thermodynamics, 20 Fish flashlight fish, 300 mosquito fish, 543 Fission, 302, 313 Flagella, 44, 213

343, 344 in bacteria, 301, 304 in bryophytes, 386, 390, 392 in fungi, 357-58 in slime molds, 349 in water molds, 351 Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 180,

188, 190 Flax, 145

Fleming, Alexander, 373, 374 Fleshy fruits, 136-38, 139 Flies fruit, 216 tachinid, 543 Floodplains, ecology and, 489 Flora of Holstein, 289 Florets, 479, 480 Floridean starch, 341 Florigen, 216-17

Flowering plants. See Angiosperms Flower-pot leaves, 120-21 Flowers, 54, 131-34, 135, 136 biological controls, 542-48 characteristices, 131-32 collecting and preserving, 453-58 complete/incomplete, 450, 451 epigynous parts, 449, 450 evolution of, 449-50 flowering hormones, research on,

216-17 parts, 449-50 perfect/imperfect, 450 perigynous parts, 449, 450 photoperiodism and, 214 specializations, 449-50 structure, 132-34, 135, 136 Fluorescence, 178

Follicle, 138, 139 Food chains, 492-93 Food-storage roots, 72 Food webs, 492

Foot, of bryophytes, 386, 387, 388, 390 Ford, Clellan, 462 Forensics, 235 Forests mountain and coastal forest biome, 515 temperate deciduous forest biome, 511-12

tropical rain forest biome, 515-17 Forest Service, US, 433 Formaldehyde, 415

Forsythia, 267

Fossil fuels, 5, 7, 488-89, 496 Fossils, 274, 417-19 casting, 418 of club mosses, 404 of conifers, 423 coprolites, 419 in evolution, 276-77 ferns and, 414, 415 flowering plants and, 449 formation, 417 Ginkgo, 428-29 land plants, appearance of, 382 molds, casts, compressions, and imprints, 417-18 petrifactions, 418-19 of Psilotum, 398 of quillworts, 404, 406 in rates of evolution, 279 unaltered, 419 Fox, 510, 512 Foxglove, 127 Franklin, Rosalind, 232 Frogs, 543

tree, 516 Fronds, 410, 411 Fructose, 21, 22, 186, 187 Fructose biphosphate, 189 Fruit, 133, 134-43, 144 climacteric fruits, 205 dispersal, 132-47 importation, regulation of, 147 indehiscent, 140-42 kinds of, 136-44, 145 quiescence and stone, 217 regions, 135-36 seedless, 448-49 Frullania, 388 Fucoxanthin, 334, 336 Fucus, 338, 339 Fumori, 347 Fungi, 356

characteristics, 356-57 chytrids, 357-58 club, 364-72

coenocytic true fungi, 358-60 collecting and preserving, 453 compared to protista, 356-57 as decomposers, 492, 496, 497 diversity, 356 edible, wild, 549-53 as food, 360, 361-64 Fusarium, 544 imperfect, 372-75 lichens and, 375-77 limiting higher plant growth, 493-94

medicinal plants, fungi and algae, 557-69

mushrooms (see Mushrooms) mycorrhizal fungi (see Mycorrhizal fungus)

poisonous plants and fungi, 553-56 resistant varieties and, 544 sac fungi, 360-64 in soil, 80 Verticillium, 544 Fungicides, on water molds, 352

616 Index

Fuschia, California, 452 Fusion, double, 447 Fynbos, 508

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