Discussion Questions

1. Most plant meristems are located at the tips of shoots and roots and in cylindrical layers within stems and roots. What could happen if they were present in leaves?

2. The cambium produces xylem toward the center of a tree and phloem toward the outside. Do you think it would make any difference if the positions of the xylem and phloem were reversed? Why?

Chapter 4

Learning Onli line

Visit our web page at www.mhhe.com/botany for interesting case studies, practice quizes, current articles, and animations within the Online Learning Center to help you understand the material in this chapter. You'll also find active links to these topics:

Architectural Pattern of Plants Meristematic Tissues Non-meristematic Tissues Roots

Stems and Secondary Growth Herbaceous Stems Leaves and the Movement of Water Wood, Cork, and Bamboo

Additional Reading

Cutler, E. F., and K. L. Alvin. 1982. The plant cuticle. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cutter, E. G. 1978. Plant anatomy, Part I: Cells and tissues, 2d ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fahn, A. 1990. Plant anatomy, 4th ed. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

Foskett, D. E. 1994. Plant growth and development. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lloyd, C. W. (Ed.). 1991. The cytoskeletal basis of plant growth and form. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Mauseth, J. D. 1988. Plant anatomy. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings.

Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk (Eds.). 1988-1989. Anatomy of the dicotyledons, 2 vols. Fair Lawn, NY: Oxford University Press.

Romberger, J. A. 1993. Plant structure: Function and development. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Starr, C. C. 2000. Biology concepts and applications, 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Brooks/Cole.

Respiration Roots

Black mangrove (Avicennia nitida) pneumatophores. Pneumatophores are above-ground spongy outgrowths of roots in wet areas where insufficient oxygen needed for normal respiration of the roots is present. The pneumatophores allow freer exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. (Courtesy Lani Stemmerman).

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  • alessandra fanucci
    Do you think it would make a difference in the positions of the xylem and phloem were reversed?
    7 years ago

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