Discussion Questions

1. Ginkgo and cycads have broad leaves, whereas those of pines are needlelike. Can you suggest any significance of this in terms of the climates and habitats involved?

2. If no distinction were made at the level of kingdom between plants and animals, what would be the equivalent, if any, of sporophyte and gametophyte in humans?

3. Both bristlecone pines and redwoods can live to be thousands of years old. What do you suppose makes this possible?

4. Most of the old-growth stands of conifers in North America are now gone, and others will be gone soon. Much of what has been harvested is being replaced with new growth, sometimes with hybrids and non-native plants. Our forests are essential to our economy as we know it. If you had the power to change the way we manage and exploit our natural forest resources, what would you do differently, assuming you did not want to damage the economy?

5. If money were no object and you wished to landscape your yard primarily with gymnosperms, realistically, what would you include, taking into account your particular geographical area? Why?

Chapter 22

Learning Online

Visit our web page at www.mhhe.com/botany for interesting case studies, practice quizzes, current articles, and animations within the Online Learning Center to help you understand the material in this chapter. You'll also find active links to these topics:

Diversity of Plants Gymnosperms

Additional Reading

Beck, C. B. (Ed.). 1988. Origin and evolution of gymnosperms.

New York: Columbia University Press. Bever, D. N. 1981. Northwest conifers: A photographic key.

Portland, OR: Binford and Mort. Bold, H. C., C. S. Alexopoulos, and T. Delevoryas. 1987. Morphology of plants and fungi, 5th ed. New York: Harper & Row.

Farjon, A., and B. T. Styles. 1997. Pinus (Pinaceae). Brooklyn, NY: New York Botanical Garden.

Johri, B. M., and C. Biswas. 1997. The gymnosperms. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Krussman, G. 1985. Manual of cultivated conifers. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Nimsch, H. 1995. A reference guide to the gymnosperms of the world. Champaign, IL: Balogh.

Smith, W. K., and T. M. Hinckley (Eds.). 1994. Resource physiology of conifers: Acquisition, allocation, and utilization. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Van Gelderen, D. M. 1996. Conifers: The illustrated encyclopedia, 2 vols. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Van Pelt, R. 2001. Forest giants of the Pacific Coast. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

Vidakovic, M. (Transl. by M. Soljan). 1991. Conifers. Morphology and variation. Zagreb, Croatia: Graficki Zavod Hrvatske. Distr. by University of Arizona Press.

Weiner, M. A., and J. A. Weiner. 1994. Herbs that heal. Mill Valley, CA: Quantum Books.

Tlr And Lupid Raft

Flowers of the butterfly weed (Asclepias curassavica), a native of the tropics from Florida to South America. Parts of the plant are used medicinally in tropical areas. In Mexico, for example, root extracts have been used in the treatment of cancers of the intestinal tract, kidneys, and uterus.

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