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Figure 15.7 A. Dutchman's breeches plant (Dicentra cucullaria). B. Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis).

is constructed so that it is highly unlikely that a pollinium of one species will be inserted within the stigma of another species. As a result, many species of related orchids can be sympatric without genes being exchanged.

Four closely related sympatric species of Peruvian Catasetum orchids, which can be artificially hybridized very easily, have no known natural hybrids, despite their being pollinated by a single species of bee. Microscopic examination of the pollinators has shown that the pollinium of one species is attached to the insect's head, that of another is attached to the insect's back, that of a third to the abdomen, and that of the fourth only to the left front leg. Even after visits to hundreds of flowers, none of the pollinia are misplaced! (Fig. 15.9).

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Figure 15.8 A pair of pollinia (sacs of pollen) produced by members of the orchid family (Orchidaceae). The pollinia become attached to the bodies of visiting insects, which transport them to other orchid flowers.

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