Additional Reading

Bir, S. S. 1983. Pteridophytes: Their morphology, cytology, taxonomy, andphylogeny. Houston, TX: Scholarly Publications.

Cobb, B. 1975. A field guide to the ferns and their related families. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Grillos, S. J. 1966. Ferns and fern allies of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns and fern allies of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Lloyd, R. M. 1964. Ethnobotanical uses of California pterido-phytes by western American Indians. American Fern Journal 54: 76-82.

McHugh, A. 1992. The cultivation of ferns. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar.

Mickel, J. 1979. How to know the ferns and fern allies. Pictured Key Nature Series. Dubuque, IA: WCB/McGraw-Hill Publishers.

Montgomery, J. D., and D. E. Fairbrothers. 1992. New Jersey ferns and fern allies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Raghaven, V. 1989. Developmental biology of fern gametophytes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Seward, A. C. (Ed.). 1991. Fossil plants for students of botany and geology, 4 vols. Houston, TX: Scholarly Publications.

Stewart, W. N., and G. W Rothwell 1993. Paleobotany and the evolution of plants, 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cycad Cones

A female cycad cone (Cycas sp.). Cycads are slow-growing, superficially palmlike gymnosperms. Gymnosperm means naked-seeded, and the developing seeds can be seen here out in the open at the edges of the cone scales.

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