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The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal

The Scar Solution

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Italic Type Indicates Ilustrations.

Abbey, Henry, 432 Abby (virus), 320-21 Abiotic factors, 491 Abrusprecatorius, 24 Abscise, 144, 423 Abscisic acid (ABA), 199, 203, 206, 218 Abscission, 125-26 Absorption spectrum, 178 Acacia, 494 Accessory fruits, 138 Acer, 117

Acer macrophyllum, 142 Acetabularia, 32, 333, 334 Acetic acid, 346 Acetyl CoA, 190-91, 202 Achene, 140, 142 Acid rain, 19, 76, 488-89 Acids, 19, 378 Aconite, 466-67

Active transport of water, 158-59 Adaptation, 276 Adenine, 232, 233 Adenosine triphosphate. See ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) Adhesion, 17

Adirondack Mountains, 432 Adventitious roots, 66, 67, 100, 101, 266 Aerenchyma, 55 Aerial roots, 65, 73, 74 Aerial stems, 72

Aerobic respiration, 186, 187, 188 Aerotaxic response, 213 Aerotropism, 210 Aflatoxin, 375

Africa, plants originating in, 463, 464 African violet, 266, 271 After-ripening, 149, 217-18 Agar, 199, 200, 341, 347^8

Agaricus bisporus, 372 Agathis, 433 Agave, 126, 128

Agent Orange (2,4,5-T), 201-2, 309 Aggregate fruits, 142, 143 Aggregates, 81 Aglaophyton, 415 Agriculture crop plant evolution, 254-56 evolution under domestication, 256 farmland, use of, 493 origins, 254-56 sustainable, 263-64 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 260-61,

262, 263 Ahorizon, 79, 80 AIDS, retroviruses and, 320, 321 Ailanthus altissima, 72 Air layering, 267 Air plant, 121 Air sacs, 425 Aizoaceae, 121 Akinetes, 313 Alaska taiga, 511 tundra, 510 Albizia, 111 Albrightia, 311 Albuminous cells, 60, 424 Alcohols, as fuels, 5 Alder tree, 76, 78, 134, 136 Alfalfa, 66, 92, 471

Algae, 327

agar, 347-48 algin, 345-46

brown algae, 325, 334, 337-38,

346, 347 collecting and preserving, 453 comparison of phyla, 345 cryptomonads, 343 diatoms (see Diatoms) dinoflagellates, 342^3 edible, wild, 549-53 Euglena, 40 euglenoids, 341^2 golden-brown algae, 334, 335 green (see Green algae) haptophytes, 343-44 humans and, 344-48 in hydrosere succession, 500 lichens and, 375-76 medicinal plants, fungi and algae,

557-69 PCBs and, 172 phototaxic response, 213 red algae, 338-41, 346-47 space exploration and, 7 Spirogyra, 178 stoneworts, 344 yellow-green algae, 334-35 Algal layer, 376 Algerian ivy, 111 Algin, 337, 345-46 Alkaline compounds, 19 Alkaloids, 192 Allard, Henry A., 214 Allium cepa, 553 Almond, 137 Alnus, 134, 136 Aloe, 127, 481, 483-84

vera, 127 Alpha-amatin, 371 Alpha lipoic acid, 371 Alternately arranged leaves, 87,

112, 113 Alternation of generations, 227 in bryophytes, 384 ferns, 384 Aluminum, 166 Amanita, 367, 371 muscaria, 355 'Ama'uma'u, 396 Amazon rain forest, 516-17 Amber, 433, 434 Amino acids, 23-24 Amino group, 24 Amino sheet, 24 Amyloplasts, 41, 67, 208, 209 Anabaena, 311, 312, 313-14 Anabolism, 171

Anaerobic respiration, 186, 187, 188 Anaphase, 48, 49, 224, 225, 226 Anemone, 465 Aneuploid plant, 239 Angiosperms, 442-43

characteristics, 442, 443 classification, 449-50 cultivated plants (see Cultivated plants; Dicots; Monocots) diversity, 442 evolution, 442-43, 449 gametophytes, development of, 442,

443-46, 448 gymnosperm seeds compared to angiosperm seeds, 422 pollination, 445, 447, 450-53

seeds, fertilization and development of, 447-48 specialization in, 449-50 Animal cells, plant cells versus, 50 Animalcules, 30 Animals. See also specific animal names biodiversity, loss of, 504 as biological controls, 542-44 desert, 514

fruit and seed dispersal by, 144-45 of grasslands, 512, 514 interactions among plants, herbivores, and animals, 493-94 of mountain and coastal forest biome, 515 names, listing of common and scientific, 519^1 pollination by, 450-53, 454, 455 of temperate deciduous forest, 512 of tropical rain forest, 516-17 in tundra, 510 Anise, 477, 478 Anisette, 478 Anisogamy, 330

424, 501 Annuals, 91, 132 Annulus, 366, 411 Antenna pigments, 180, 181 Anther, 133, 135 Antheridia in algae, 332, 335, 338, 339 of bryophytes, 386, 387, 388, 390 in ferns, 412, 413 in fungi, 360-61, 362 in horsetails, 407-8 in Psilotum, 398 in spike mosses, 401, 402, 403 water molds, 351 Antheridiophore, of bryophytes,

386, 387 Anthers, 443

Anthocyanins, 43^4, 109, 125

Anthrax, 307

Antiaris toxicaria, 2

Antibiotics, 5, 6, 373-74

Anticodon, 237

Antipodals, 443, 445

Ants, 145, 494

Apertures, 445

Aphanocapsa, 312

Aphids, 164-65, 318

Apical dominance, 205, 206

Aplanospores, 330, 335

Apomixis, 448-49

Apothecium, 361, 363

Apple, 139, 148, 450

Apple rust, 370

Aquaculture, 344^-5

Aquatic plants, roots, 66

Arabidopsis thaliana, 46

Arborvitae, 435

Archaea, Kingdom, 290, 291

Archaebacteria, 301, 315-17

Archegonia in bryophytes, 386, 387, 388, 389,

390, 391 in gymnosperms, 426, 427 in Psilotum, 398 in seedless vascular plants, 401, 402, 407, 408

Archegoniophore, of bryophytes, 386, 387 Aretium lappa, 12 Arid regions, 117-18, 119, 185, 514 Arils, 427, 428, 435 Aristolochia, 116 Aristotle, 274, 287 Arms, root, 71 Arrowroot starch, 438 Arroyo, Padre, 433 Arthrospira, 311 Artichoke, globe, 480 Asci, 360-61

Asclepias curassavica, 441 Ascocarp, 361

Ascogenous hyphae, 361, 362 Ascogonia, 361, 362 Ascoma, 361, 363 Ascomycetes, 360-64 Ascospores, 361-62 Asexual reproduction, 222-23 in brown algae, 338 in bryophytes, 386, 388, 393 in fungi, 357-58, 359, 360, 361, 365 in lichens, 377

autumnal coloration, 125 white, 103 Asia, plants originating in, 463, 464 Asparagus, 481, 590 Aspen, 125, 510 Aspergilloses, 374 Aspergillus, 26, 374

flavus, 375 Assimilation, 14, 192 Aster, 49, 512 Astragalus, 471

Asymmetric growth phase of tropic movements, 207 Atole, 475 Atom, 15

Atomic mass, 15, 16 Atomic number, 15, 16 ATP (Adenosine triphosphate), 173 in auxin movement, 201 in light-dependent reactions, 176,

179, 180, 181, 182 in light-independent reactions,

176-77, 182-83 molecules, 159

in respiration, 186, 187, 188, 190-91 in sulfate reduction, 185 in turgor movements, 210 Atropine, 127, 477 Attar, 470 Australia, 475 Autoclave, 269, 270 Autograph tree, 141 Autospores, 329-30 Autotrophic bacteria, 304 Auxin, 199-202, 206, 266 Auxospores, 336 Available water, 83 Avicennia nitida, 72 Avocado, 467 Axil, 87 Azolla, 417

Bacillariophyceae, 335-36

Bacillosiphon, 311

612 Index

Bacillus, 311, 320 popilliae, 309

thuringiensis (Bt), 262, 263, 264, 309, 543 Backcross, 245 Bacteria, 14

Agrobacterium tumefaciens,

260-61, 262, 263 anaerobic, 504 archaebacteria, 301, 315-17 autotrophic, 304 bacilli, 303

bacteriophages, 319, 320 as biological controls, 543 in carbon cycle, 495-96 characteristics, 301-4 chloroxybacteria, 301 classification, 303^ composting and compost, 304-5 conjugation, 302-3 cyanobacteria (see Cyanobacteria) as decomposers, 492, 496, 497-98 and disease, 305-8 diversity, 300 DNA, 299

Escherichia coli, 260

as food, 314

gene cloning by, 260-61, 262, 263

genetically engineered to breaking down toxic wastes, 489 Gram stain, 304 heterotrophic, 304 human relevance of, 304-10,

313-14, 316-17 limiting higher plant growth,

493-94 methane bacteria, 315 methane production by, 504 nitrogen-fixing bacteria, 310, 313,

314, 497 prochlorobacteria, 314-15 prokaryotic cells in, 301 recycling and, 304 reproduction, 299, 300, 301-3,

312-13 resistant varieties and, 544 and root nodules, 76, 78 size, 303 in soil, 80 sulfolobus, 316 sulfur, 304 transduction, 303 transformation, 303 true bacteria, 304-10 Xenorhabdus nematophilus, 543 Bacterial rhodopsin, 315 Bacteriochlorophyll, 304 Bacteriophages, 319, 320 Bacteriophyta, 304 Balance of Nature, 493 Balsamroot, 480 Bamboo, giant Asian, 212 Banda Sea, 300 Banner petal, 470, 471 Banyan tree, 73, 74, 207 Barbasco plant, 78 Barberry in black stem rust life cycle, 369-70 flower, contact movements, 211 spines, 120 Bark, 95 Barley, 164, 480 Bases, 19

Basidia, 365, 366, 367-68 Basidiocarp, 366 Basidioma, 366 Basidiomycota, 364-72 Basidiospores, 367-68, 370 Basswood, 93, 165, 512 Batasins, 205 Bateson, W., 249 Bats, 453, 516

Bay, 467

California, 467 Beagle, HMS, 275 Beal, William J., 149, 151 Bean, 147, 148, 471, 473, 590 broad, 591 castor, 473 coffee, 482-83 fava, 591 jequirity, 24 lima, 590

Mexican jumping, 473 pole, 590 seed structure, 147 soybean, 215, 261-62, 264, 471, 590 string or snap, 590 winged, 471, 472-73 Beano, 26 Bears, 510, 515 Beavers, mountain, 515 Bedrock, 80 Bedstraw, 113, 145 Beech, 499, 512

Beefsteak morel mushrooms, 361 Bees, pollination by, 451 Beetles, 430 Japanese, 309 pollination by, 451 wood-boring, 373 Beets, 591 Begonia, 266 Beijerinck, Martinus, 318 Belladonna, 127, 477 Belt, Thomas, 494 Berberis, 120

Berries, 137-38. See also specific berries Betacyanin pigments, 125 Beta sheet, 24

Beverages, from leaves, 127-28 B horizon, 79, 80 Biennials, 132

Bilateral symmetry, 450, 470, 471 Binnig, Gerd, 31

Binomial system of nomenclature,

287-90 Bioassay, 178, 200 Biodiversity, loss of, 504 Biological controls, 542-48 Bioluminescence, 212, 326 Biomass, 491 ferns and, 417 in peat bogs, 384 plant life in, 3-4 Biomes, 9, 516 desert, 514 grassland, 512-14 mountain and coastal forest, 515 taiga, 510-11

temperate deciduous forest, 511-12 tundra, 509-10 Bioreactors, 261 Bioremediation, 309 Biotic community, 490 factors, 491 Bipinnately compound leaves, 110, 111 Birch, 125, 160, 510, 512 Birds bryophytes in nest construction, 384 of deserts, 514

fruit and seed dispersal by, 144-45 of grasslands, 514 hummingbirds, 452 of mountain and coastal forest biome, 515 pollination by, 450-52 in taiga, 510

of temperate deciduous forest, 512 of tropical rain forest, 516 in tundra, 510 Bird's nest fungi, 368, 369 Bisexual plants, 388 Blackberries, 143, 283

Black stem rust, 369-70 Bladders, 337

Bladderworts, 14, 123-25, 210 Blade, 87, 88

in brown algae, 337 of bryophytes, 389 leaf, 110, 111 Bleeding hearts, 145, 146

Pacific, 146, 442 Bloodroot, 467-68, 512 Blooms algal, 341, 342-43 bacterial, 313, 314 red tides, 342-43 Blowouts, 510 Blue-eyed Mary plant, 247 Bogs, 383, 500 Bolete, 368 Boletus, 368 Bolting, 214 Bonds, 18-19 covalent, 18 hydrogen, 19 ionic, 18-19 Bongard, August, 294 Bordeaux mixture, 352 Bordered pits, 58, 59 Borlaug, Norman, 257 Boron, 166, 167 Borrelia burgdorferi, 308 Botany, emergence as science, 7-8 Botryocladia, 340 Botulism, 306-7 Bougainvillea, 170 Bracts, 111, 121-22, 133 Branch (lateral) roots, 66, 71 Brassica, 469 juncea, 82 Brassicaceae, 468-69 Brassinosteroids, 205 Brazil, coffee cultivation, 482 Bread fungi in preparation of, 362 molds, 358 Breeding, plant, 256-58 Breil, David, 384 Brevibacterium, 310 Broccoli, 468, 591 Bromeliads, 516 Broomrape plant, 75, 443 Brosimum utile, 2 Brown, Robert, 30

Brown algae, 325, 334, 337-38, 346-47

Brownian movement, 156

Brucellosis, 307

Brussels sprouts, 468

Bryology, 9

Bryophyta, 389-93

Bryophytes, 382-85

alternation of generations, 384 collecting and preserving, 453 environments, 382-84 hornworts (see Hornworts) human and ecological relevance, 393 life cycles, 387-91 liverworts (see Liverworts) mosses (see Mosses) species, number of, 382 Bryopsids, 327 Bubonic plague, 307-8 Buchner, Eduard, 30 Buckeye, 113, 512 Buds, 132

adventitious, 72 axillary, 87, 88, 110 in fungi, 360, 361 gaps, 90, 91 in mosses, 393 primordia, 90, 91 scales, 87 scale scar, 87, 88 terminal, 87, 88

Buffalo, 512 Buffon, Count de, 274 Bulbils, 205 Bulblets, 102 Bulbs, 100, 101

propagation by, 268, 269 in vegetables growing, 588-89 Bulliform cells, 116, 213 Bundle scars, 88 Bundle sheath, 115 Burdock, 12 Buttercup, 162 family, 465-67 roots, 70

seed dispersal, 143 Butterflies, pollination by, 451-52, 454 Butterfly pea, 253 Butterfly weed, 441 Button (mycelium), 366 Buttress roots, 75, 76

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