Microarray Technology for Genomics and Proteomics

Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for high-throughput rapid analysis of a large number of samples. This capability has been of significant value in advancing the fields of Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics, which are at the forefront of modern structural biology, molecular profiling of diseases, and drug discovery. Biophotonics has played an important role in the development of microarray technology, since optical methods are used for detection and readout of microarrays.

This chapter on microarray technology follows Chapter 9 on biosensors because, in a true sense, it is a natural extension of biosensing. It utilizes a micropatterned array of biosensing capture agents for rapid and simultaneous probing of a large number of DNA, proteins, cells, or tissue fragments. Since many disciplines have contributed to the development of microarray technology, this chapter is written to cover the various multifaceted aspects such as the fabrication of microarrays, the immobilization of capturing/biorecognition elements, and scanning and readout of a vast amount of data.

Four types of microarrays are covered here: DNA microarrays, protein microarrays, cell microarrays and tissue microarrays. Among them, the most developed are DNA microarrays, also known as biochips or by a trade name (e.g., GeneChipĀ®). They are widely used in clinical laboratories around the world. Protein microarrays form an emerging technology, because the emphasis is shifting to proteomics with the recognition that it is the proteins that need to be catalogued and analyzed to understand biological complexity and functions. Cell microarrays and tissue microarrays are relatively new developments.

The chapter introduces the principles utilized in these various microarray technologies. The various methods of fabrications of each of these four microarrays are discussed. Some selected examples of applications of microar-rays are provided.

A discussion of future directions is provided to identify some areas of opportunities. Finally, the chapter concludes with a list of some companies

Introduction to Biophotonics, by Paras N. Prasad.

ISBN: 0-471-28770-9 Copyright Ā© 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

commercializing the various microarrays. This list demonstrates that the microarray technology is already being perceived to be a growing field of applications and thus an expanding business opportunity. This list is also intended to be of help to new users of microarray technologies as well as to researchers entering this field.

For further reading on DNA microarray technology, the books suggested are:

Rampal (2001): Knudsen (2002): Schena (2000): Palzkill (2002):

DNA Arrays: Methods and Protocols Analysis of DNA Microarray Data Microarray Biochip Technology Proteomics

In addition, an entire supplemental issue of Nature Genetics is dedicated to microarrays [1999, Vol. 21 (Suppl.)]

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