The alimentary and genitourinary systems

The history 146

Alimentary symptoms 146 Genitourinary symptoms 155 Menstrual and obstetric history 158 The sexual history 159

The physical examination 159

Mouth, throat and oesophagus 159 Abdomen 159 Anatomy and normal structures 160 Inspection 161 Palpation 163

Percussion and auscultation 167 Hernial orifices and genitalia 170 Examination of the hern I al orifices 170 Examination of the male genitalia 171 Examination of the female genitalia 172

Examination of the rectum 174 Proctoscopy 176

The acute abdomen 176

Examination of the urine 178

Macroscopic examination 179 Biochemical examination 179 Microscopic examination 180 Microbiological examination 181

Further investigations of alimentary and genitourinary disease 182

Radiological investigations 182

Common pitfalls and how to avoid them 183

Further reading 183

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