The history 146
Alimentary symptoms 146 Genitourinary symptoms 155 Menstrual and obstetric history 158 The sexual history 159
The physical examination 159
Mouth, throat and oesophagus 159 Abdomen 159 Anatomy and normal structures 160 Inspection 161 Palpation 163
Examination of the rectum 174 Proctoscopy 176
The acute abdomen 176
Examination of the urine 178
Macroscopic examination 179 Biochemical examination 179 Microscopic examination 180 Microbiological examination 181
Further investigations of alimentary and genitourinary disease 182
Radiological investigations 182
Common pitfalls and how to avoid them 183
Further reading 183
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