Testing the collateral ligaments

The collateral ligaments control mediolateral stability. With the knee fully extended, there is normally no abduction or adduction. If the ligament is lax, the knee opens when stressed. When this manoeuvre is performed on a strained ligament, no movement occurs, but pain is elicited over the damaged ligament. Remember thai a small amount of movement is normally present when the knee is slightly flexed and 'unlocked'.

Examination sequence

□ With the knee fully extended, hold the patient's ankle firmly between the examiner's elbow and side.

□ Use both hands to attempt to abduct and adduct the tibia while keeping the knee straight (Fig. K.34).

□ With the leg resting on ihe couch and one hand holding the ankle firmly, look for abnormal laxity by applying pressure with the other hand first over the medial and lateral aspects of the knee.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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