Nipple discharge

A small amount of clear fluid expressed from multiple ducts of the breast on massage is normal. Persistent single duct discharge or blood-stained (macroscopic or microscopic) discharge should always be investigated. The differential diagnosis includes duct ectasia, intraduct papilloma or rarely intraduct carcinoma.

Galactorrhoea. Galactorrhoea is characterised by a milky discharge from multiple ducts in both breasts and is a feature of hyperprolactinaeinia. There is usually associated Montgomery tubercle hyperplasia. Spontaneous milk production is uncommon and often galactorrhoea is found only by trying to express milk. The causes of hyperprolactinaeinia include physiological processes (pregnancy, postpartum), drugs (dopamine antagonists, dopamine-depleting agents), pituitary tumours, hypothalamic and stalk lesions, primary hypothyroidism and renal failure.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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