Damage to, or inflammation arising in, a muscle tendon unit or the tendon attachment to bone (enthesis) is associated with local tenderness. Inflammation of the tendon sheath (tenosynovitis) results in swelling, sometimes accompanied by tenderness and crepitus along the line of the sheath. Any
action which stretchcs the damaged structure will elicit pain. Tendon rupture is associated with complete loss of active movement but a normal range of passive movement. Muscle or tendon pathology may also lead to joint contracture (Fig. 8.7).
Abnormal gaits may be divided into two types - painful (antalgic) or painless.
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