Cardiac ultrasound scanners have improved to the point that diagnostic images can be obtained in nearly every patient. The commonest indication is the assessment of left ventricular function. In addition to imaging cardiac structure, blood flow can be displayed (Dopplcr echocardiography) and quantified. Most scans are performed through the anterior wall of the chest but w hen high-resolution images of posterior structures (e.g. left atrium or descending aorta) are required recordings made from six pericardial electrodes (V1-V6) together with six different pairings from three limb electrodes (left arm, right arm and left leg). The right leg electrode is used as a reference.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.