Reflex Epilepsies

Reflex epilepsies are usually discussed in association with unusual epileptic seizure types. However, the seizures themselves are less unique than the fact that specific stimuli trigger them. If seizures do not exist in the absence of the triggers, some argue that these are not real epilepsies (82), but rather, that the term "reflex" should be considered a seizure modifier. An example of a reflex epilepsy is musicogenic epilepsy (83-85), in which music may trigger a seizure with musical hallucinations (85). Bathing epilepsy has been described, a particularly hazardous trigger (86). Other stimuli are startles by loud noises, somatosensory stimulation, proprioceptive stimulation, voices, eating, sounds, and language functions (87-89). A special case of the latter, reading epilepsy, can have jaw deviations, sensation, or clonae associated with it (89).

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