The differential diagnosis of epilepsy in children—from the very young to the maturing adolescent—may be difficult, but rarely is it impossible. It demands two processes: the art of history taking, and the intellectual process of diagnosis.

The history comes from an intense direct communication between pediatrician or child neurologist and child, caregivers, or witnesses. If the parents were not there at the time of an event, don't forget the school teachers. From whoever it is gleaned, the precise, detailed, consecutive, all-embracing history remains paramount. If in doubt, have someone at home, school, or outdoor activity capture an event on videotape. If that does not succeed, a useful addition to the history-gathering processes is the method of showing video-recordings of different epileptic and nonepileptic events to parents to discover which, if any, resemble their own child's attacks—the "that's it!" phenomenon.

Although the intellectual process of diagnosis normally integrates all the clinical information from history and examination with the laboratory tests, in the case of paroxysmal events, the history often stands alone. The intellectual process is then to pull together the threads of the history and weigh the probability of epileptic phenomena versus the probability of nonepileptic phenomena in the knowledge that, in total, the latter are more common than epileptic seizures and at least as diverse as the epilep tic events that they imitate. Not only that, but it may be more dangerous for the physician and the patient to miss the diagnosis of a syncope from a cardiac conduction defect than to miss a diagnosis of an early epilepsy.

Even when a diagnosis of epilepsy has seemed secure for many years, still be prepared to question not only the type of epilepsy or epileptic syndrome, but whether it is really epilepsy after all. As we have shown, this applies even when the original diagnosis of epilepsy was certain. Beware writing or even thinking "known epileptic" (156). To quote Stephenson (1) "'known epileptic' means nothing of the kind. Either it is not epilepsy, or the epilepsy is insufficiently understood— otherwise, why the consultation?" May the development of your understanding never cease.

1. Stephenson JBP. Fits and Faints. Cambridge and New York: Mac Keith Press and Cambridge University Press, 1990.

2. Aicardi J. Diseases of the Nervous System in Childhood. Cambridge and New York: Mac Keith Press and Cambridge University Press, 1992.

3. Stephenson JBP. Anoxic seizures: self-terminating syncopes. Epileptic Disorders 2001;3:3-6.

4. Gomes Mda M, Kropf LA, Beeck Eda S, Figueira IL. Inferences from a community study about non-epileptic events. Arq Neu-ropsiquiatr. 2002;60(3-B):712-6.

5. Smith PE, Myson V, Gibbon F. A teenager epilepsy clinic: observational study. Euro J Neurology 2002;9:373-76.

6. Bye AM, Kok DJ, Ferenschild FT, Vies JS. Paroxysmal non-epileptic events in children: a retrospective study over a period of 10 years. J Pediatric and Child Health 2000;36:244-48.

7. Kotagal P, Costa M, Wyllie E, Wolgamuth B. Paroxysmal nonepileptic events in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2002;110:e46.

8. Uldall P, Alving J, Buchholt J, Hansen L, Kibaek M. Evaluation of a tertiary referral epilepsy centre for children. Europ J Paediatr Neurol 2001;5:A69 [EPNS P146].

9. Zubcevic S, Gavranovic M, Catibusic F, Buljina A. Frequency of misdiagnosis of epilepsy in a group of 79 children with diagnosis of intractable epilepsy. Europ J Pediatr Neurol 2001;5:A132-3 [EPNS P337].

10. Gastaut H. A physiopathogenic study of reflex anoxic cerebral seizures in children (syncopes, sobbing spasms and breath-holding spells). Clin Electroencephalography of Children 1968; (eds. P. Kellaway and I. Petersen), Almquist & Wiksell, Stockholm.

11. Stephenson JBP. Reflex anoxic seizures ('white breath-holding'): nonepileptic vagal attacks. Arch Dis Child 1978;53:193-200.

12. Lombroso CT, Lerman P. Breathholding spells (cyanotic and pallid infantile syncope). Pediatrics 1967;39:563-81

13. Roddy SM, Ashwal S, Schneider S. Venepuncture fits: a form of reflex anoxic seizure. Pediatrics 1983;72:715-18.

14. Appleton RE. Reflex anoxic seizures. British Medical Journal 1993;307:214-15.

15. Sreeram N, Whitehouse W. Permanent cardiac pacing for reflex anoxic seizure. Arch Dis Childhood 1996;75:462.

16. McLeod KA, Wilson N, Hewitt J, Norrie J, Stephenson JBP. Cardiac pacing for severe childhood neurally mediated syncope with reflex anoxic seizures. Heart 1999;82:721-5.

17. Stephenson JBP, McLeod KA. Reflex Anoxic Seizures. In: David TJ (ed.). Recent Advances in Paediatrics 18. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

18. Kelly AM, Porter CJ, McGoon MD, Espinosa RE, Osborn MJ, Hayes DL. Breath-holding spells associated with significant bradycardia: successful treatment with permanent pacemaker implantation. Pediatrics 2001;108:698-702.

19. Breningstall GN. Breath-holding spells. Pediatric Neurology 1996;14:91-97.

20. Blackmore S. Experiences of anoxia: do reflex anoxic seizures resemble NDEs? J Near Death Studies 1998;17:111-20.

21. Fitzpatrick A, Sutton R. Tilting towards a diagnosis in recurrent unexplained syncope. Lancet 1989;i, 658-60.

22. Ziegler DK, Lin J, Bayer WL. Convulsive syncope: relationship to cerebral ischemia. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1978;103:150-4.

23. Lempert T, Bauer M, Schmidt D. Syncope: a videometric analysis of 56 episodes of transient cerebral hypoxia. Ann Neurol 1994;36:233-7.

24. Lempert T. Recognizing syncope: pitfalls and surprises. J Royal Soc Med 1996;89:372-75.

25. Camfield PR, Camfield CS. Syncope in childhood: a case control clinical study of the familial tendency to faint. Can J Neurological Sci 1990;17:306-08.

26. Connolly J, Hallam RS, Marks IM. Selective association of fainting with blood-injury-illness fear. Behaviour Therapy 1976; 7:8-13.

27. Marks I. Blood-injury phobia: a review. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:1207-13.

28. Accurso V, Winnicki M, Shamsuzzaman AS, et al. Predisposition to vasovagal syncope in subjects with blood/injury phobia. Circulation 2001;104:903-07.

29. North KN, Ouvrier RA, Nugent M. Pseudoseizures caused by hyperventilation resembling absence epilepsy. J Child Neurology 1990;5:288-94.

30. Swartz BE. Pseudo-absence seizures: a frontal lobe phenomenon. J Epilepsy 1992;5:80-93.

31. Naschitz JE, Hardoff D, Bystritzki I, et al. The role of capnogra-phy head-up tilt test in the diagnosis of syncope in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1998;101:E6.

32. Lagi A, Cencetti S, Corsoni V, et al. Cerebral vasoconstriction in vasovagal syncope: any link with symptoms? A transcranial Doppler study. Circulation 2001;104:2694-98.

33. Mathias CJ, Bannister R, Cortelli P, et al. Clinical autonomic and therapeutic observations in two siblings with postural hypotension and sympathetic failure due to an inability to synthesize noradrenaline from dopamine because of a deficiency of dopamine betahydroxylase. Quart J Med 1990;75:617-33.

34. Oslizlok P, Allen M, Griffin M, Gillette P. Clinical features and management of young patients with cardioinhibitory response during orthostatic testing. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69:1363-5.

35. Stewart JM. Orthostatic intolerance in pediatrics. J Pediatrics 2002;140:404-11.

36. Stewart JM, Gewitz MH, Weldon A, Munoz J. Patterns of orthostatic intolerance: the orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and adolescent chronic fatigue. J Pediatrics 1999;135:218-25.

37. Jervell A, Lange-Nielsen F. Congenital deaf-mutism, functional heart disease with prolongation of the Q—T interval and sudden death. Am Heart J 1957;54:59-67.

38. Ward OC. A new familial cardiac syndrome in children. J Irish Med Assoc 1964;54:103-06.

39. Singh B, Al Shawan SA, Al Deeb SM. Idiopathic long QT syndrome: asking the right question. Lancet 1993;341:741-42.

40. Kosinski D, Grubb BP, Karas BJ, Frederick S. Exercise-induced neurocardiogenic syncope:clinical data, pathophysiological aspects, and potential role of tilt table testing. Europace 2000;2:77-82.

41. Shaw TR. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation associated with normal QT intervals. Q J Med 1981; 50:451-62.

42. Brown DC, Godman MJ. Life threatening 'epilepsy'. Arch Dis Child 1991;66:986-7.

43. Yabek SM. Ventricular arrhythmias in children with an apparently normal heart. J Pediatr 1991;119:1-11.

44. Leenhardt A, Lucet V, Denjoy I, Grau F, Ngoc DD, Coumel P. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in children. A 7-year follow-up of 21 patients. Circulation 1995;91:1512-9.

45. Culpepper N. A Directory for Midwives; or a Guide for Women in their Conception, Bearing (etc.). London: Bettersworth & Hitch, 1737.

46. Gordon N. Breath-holding spells. Dev Med Child Neurology 1987;29:810-14.

47. DiMario FJ Jr. Breath-holding spells in childhood. Am J Dis Childhood 1992;146:125-31.

48. DiMario FJ Jr, Burleson JA. Behaviour profile of children with severe breath-holding spells. J Pediatrics 1993;122:488-91.

49. Southall DP, Johnson P, Morley CJ, et al. Prolonged expiratory apnoea: a disorder resulting in episodes of severe arterial hypox-aemia in infants and young children. Lancet 1985;ii:571-77.

50. Gauk EW, Kidd L, Prichard JS. Aglottic breath-holding spells. New Eng J Medicine 1966;275:1361-62.

51. Stephenson JBP. Blue breath-holding is benign. Arch Dis Childhood 1991;6:255-57.

52. Southall DP, Samuels MP, Talbert DG. Recurrent cyanotic episodes with severe arterial hypoxaemia and intrapulmonary shunting: a mechanism for sudden death. Arch Dis Child 1990;65:953-61.

53. DiMario FJ Jr. Prospective study of children with cyanotic and pallid breath-holding spells. Pediatrics 2001;107:265-69.

54. Gastaut H, Broughton R, de Leo G. Syncopal attacks compulsively self-induced by the Valsalva manoeuvre jn children with mental retardation. Electroencephalography Clin Neurophysiol-ogy 1982;35(Suppl.):323-29.

55. Genton P, Dusserre A. Pseudo-absences atoniques par syncopes auto-provoquees (manoeuvre de Valsalva). Epilepsies 1993;5: 223-27.

56. Aicardi J, Gastaut H, Mises J. Syncopal attacks compulsively self-induced by Valsalva's manoeuvre associated with typical absence seizures. Arch Neurology 1988;45:923-25.

57. Battaglia A, Guerrini R, Gastaut H. Epileptic seizures induced by syncopal attacks. J Epilepsy 1989;2:137-46.

58. Li WW, Lombroso CT, Stephenson JBP. Eradication of incapacitating self-induced ischaemic seizures by opioid receptor blockade. Epilepsia 1989;30:679 (abstr).

59. Glaze DG, Schultz RJ, Frost JD. Rett syndrome: characterization of seizures versus non-seizures. Electroencephalography Clin Neurophysiology 1998;106:79-83.

60. Navelet Y, Wood C, Robleux C, Tardieu M. Seizures presenting as apnoea. Arch Dis Childhood 1989;64:357-59.

61. Spitzer AR, Boyle JT, Tuchman DN, Fox WW. Awake apnea associated with gastroesophageal reflux: a specific clinical syndrome. J Pediatrics 1984;104:200-05.

62. Meadow R. Suffocation, recurrent apnea, and sudden infant death. J Pediatrics 1990;117:351-57.

63. Meadow R. Fictitious epilepsy. Lancet 1984;ii, 25-28.

64. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Fabricated or Induced Illness by Carers. London: RCPCH, 2002.

65. Rosen CL, Frost JD, Bricker T, et al. Two siblings with recurrent cardiorespiratory arrest: Munchausen syndrome by proxy or child abuse? Pediatrics 1983;71:715-20.

66. Rosen CL, Frost JD Jr, Glaze DG. Child abuse and recurrent infant apnea. J Pediatrics 1986;109:1065-67.

67. Southall DP, Plunkett MC, Banks MW, et al. Covert video recordings of life-threatening child abuse: lessons for child protection. Pediatrics 1997;100:735-60.

68. Pascotto A, Coppola G. Neonatal hyperekplexia: a case report. Epilepsia 1992;33:817-20.

69. Vigevano F, Di Capua M, Dalla Bernardina B. Startle disease: an avoidable cause of sudden infant death. Lancet 1989;I:216.

70. Suhren O, Bruyn GW, Tuynman JA. Hyperexplexia: a hereditary startle syndrome. J Neurological Sci 1966;31:577-605.

71. Gastaut H, Villeneuve A. The startle disease or hyperekplexia: pathological surprise reaction. J Neurological Sci 1967;5: 523-42.

72. Kurczynski TW. Hyperekplexia. Arch Neurology 1983;40: 246-48.

73. Rees MI, Lewis TM, Vafa B, et al. Compound heterozygosity and nonsense mutations in the alpha(1)-subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor in hyperekplexia. Human Genetics 2001;109: 267-70.

74. Rees ML, Lewis TM, Kwok JB, et al. Hyperekplexia associated with compound heterozygote mutations in the beta-subunit of the human inhibitory glycine receptor (GLRB). Human Molecular Genetics 2002;11:853-60.

75. Elmslie FV, Wilson J, Rossiter MA. Familial rectal pain: is it underdiagnosed? J Royal Soc Med 1996;89:290P-1P.

76. Schubert R, Cracco JB. Familial rectal pain: a type of reflex epilepsy? Ann Neurology 1992;32:824-6.

77. Poets CF, Samuels MY, Noyes IP, et al. Home event recordings of oxygenation, breathing movements, and heart rate and rhythm in infants with recurrent life-threatening events. J Pediatrics 1993;123:693-701.

78. Nechay A, Ross LM, Stephenson JBP, O'Regan M. Gratification disorder ("infantile masturbation"): a review. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:225-6.

79. Mahowald MW, Schenck CH. Dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep. Neurology 1992;42(suppl. 6):44-52.

80. Ollendick TH, Mattis SG, King Nj. Panic in children and adolescents: a review. J Child Psychology Psychiatry 1994; 35:113-34.

81. Laidlaw JDD, Zaw KM. Epilepsy mistaken for panic attacks in an adolescent girl. Brit Med J 1993;306:709-10.

82. McNamara ME. Absence seizure associated with panic attacks initially misdiagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy: the importance of prolonged EEG monitoring in diagnosis. J Psychiatry Neuroscience 1993;18:46-48.

83. Huppertz HJ, Franck P, Korinthenberg R, Schulze-Bonhage A. Recurrent attacks of fear and visual hallucinations in a child. J Child Neurol 2002;17:230-3.

84. Goodwin DS, Simms M, Bergman R. Hysterical seizures: a sequel to incest. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1979;49:698-703.

85. Alper K, Devinski O, Perrine K, et al. Nonepileptic seizures and childhood sexual and physical abuse. Neurology 1993;43:1950-53.

86. Linzer M, Varia I, Pontinen M, et al. Medically unexplained syncope: relationship to psychiatric illness. Am J Med 1992;92: (Suppl. 1A), 18S-25S.

87. Taylor DC. The components of sickness: diseases, illnesses, and predicaments. Lancet 1979;2(8150):1008-10.

88. Taylor DC. The sick child's predicament. Austral N Z J Psychiatry 1985;19:130-37.

89. Gudmundsson O, Prendergast M, Foreman D, Cowley S. Outcome of pseudoseizures in children and adolescents: a 6-year symptom survival analysis. Dev Med Child Neurology 2001;43:547-51.

90. Jureidini J, Taylor DC. Hysteria. Pretending to be sick. Eur Child Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;11:123-28.

91. Dalla Bernardina B, Colamaria V, Chiamenti C, Capovilla G, Trevisan E, Tassinari CA. Benign partial epilepsy with affective symptoms (benign psychomotor epilepsy). In: Roger J, Bureau M, Dravet C, Dreifuss FE, Perret A, Wolf P (eds.). Epileptic Syndromes in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence, 2nd edition. London: John Libbey, 1992;219-23.

92. Coulter DL, Allen RJ. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus. Arch Neurology 1982;39:191-92.

93. Alfonso I, Papazian O, Aicardi J, Jeffries HE. A simple maneuver to provoke benign neonatal sleep myoclonus. Pediatrics 1995;96:1161-63.

94. Fusco L, Pachatz C, Cusmai R, Vigevano F. Repetitive sleep starts in neurologically impaired children: an unusual non-epileptic manifestation in otherwise epileptic subjects. Epileptic Dis 1999;1:63-67.

95. Walters AS, Picchietti DL, Ehrenberg BL, Wagner ML. Restless legs syndrome in childhood and adolescence. Pediatric Neurology 1994;11:241-45.

96. Walters AS, Mandelbaum DE, Lewin DS, et al. Dopaminergic therapy in children with restless legs/periodic limb movements in sleep and ADHD. Dopaminergic Therapy Study Group. Pedi-atric Neurology 2000;22:182-86.

97. Challamel MJ, Mazzola ME, Nevsimalova S, Cannard C, Louis J, Revol M. Narcolepsy in children. Sleep 1994;17(8 Suppl):S17-20.

98. Nishino S, Ripley B, Overeem S, et al. Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Lancet 2000;355:39-40.

99. Zeman A, Douglas N, Aylward R. Lesson of the week: narcolepsy mistaken for epilepsy. Brit Med J 2000;322:216-18.

100. Guilleminault C, Pelayo R. Narcolepsy in children: a practical guide to its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Paediatric Drugs 2000;2:1-9.

101. Guerrini R, Sanchez-Carpentiro R, Deonna T, et al. Early-onset absence epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesias. Epilepsia 2002; 43:1224-29.

102. Szepotowski P, Rochette R, Berquin, Piussan C, Lathrop GM, Monaco AP. Familial infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis: A new neurological syndrome linked to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16. Am J Human Gene 1997;61:889-98.

103. Zuberi SM, Eunson LH, Spauschus A, De Silva R, Tolmie J, Wood NW, McWilliam RC, Stephenson JBP, Kullmann DM, Hanna MG. A novel mutation in the human voltage gated potassium channel gene (Kv1.1) associates with episodic ataxia and sometimes with partial epilepsy. Brain 1999;122:817-25.

104. Thiriaux A, de St Martin A, Vercueil L, et al. Co-occurrence of infantile epileptic seizures and childhood paroxysmal choreoa-thetosis in one family: clinical, EEG, and SPECT characterization of episodic events. Movement Dis 2002;17:98-104.

105. Singh R, Macdonnel RA, Scheffer IE, et al. Epilepsy and paroxysmal movement disorders in families: evidence for shared mechanisms. Epileptic Dis 1999;1:93-99.

106. Zuberi SM, Hanna MG. Ion channels and neurology. Arch Dis Childhood 2001;84:277-80.

107. Hille, B. Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes, 3rd edition. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 2001.

108. Fahn S. The paroxysmal dyskinesias. In: Marsden CD, Fahn S (eds.). Movement Disorders 3. Oxford: Butterworth Heineman 1994;310-45.

109. Houser MK, Soland VL, Bhatia KP, Quinn MP, Marsden CD. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: a report of 26 cases. J Neurology 1999;246:120-26.

110. Bennett LB, Roach ES, Bowcock AM. A locus for paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia maps to human chromosome 16. Neurology 2000;54:125-30.

111. Tomita H, Nagamitsu S, Wakui K, et al. A gene for paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis mapped to 16p11.2-q12.1. Am J Human Genetics 1999;65:1688-97.

112. Fink JK, Hedera P, Mathay JG, Albin R. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis linked to chromosome 2q: clinical analysis and proposed physiology. Neurology 1997;49:177-83.

113. Fouad GT, Servidei S, Durcan S, Bertini E, Ptacek LJ. A gene for familial dyskinesia (FPDI) maps to chromosome 2q. Am J Hum Genet 1996;59:135-39.

114. Bhatia KP, Soland VL, Bhatt MH, Quinn NP, Marsden CD. Paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia: eight new sporadic cases and a review of the literature. Movement Disorders 1997;12:1007-12.

115. Fernandez-Alvarez E. Transient movement disorders in children. J Neurology 1998;245:1-5.

116. Al-Twaijri WA, Shevell MI. Pediatric migraine equivalents: occurrence and clinical features in practice. Pediatric Neurology 2002;26:365-68.

117. Giffin NJ, Benton S, Goadsby PJ. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: four new cases and linkage to CACNA1A mutation. Dev Med Child Neurology 2002;44:490-93.

118. Ouvrier RA, Billson MD. Benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood. J Child Neurology 1988;3:177-80.

119. Hayman M, Harvey A, Hopkins IJ, et al. Paroxysmal tonic upgaze: a reappraisal of outcome. Ann Neurology 1998;43: 514-20.

120. Browne DL, Gancher ST, Nutt JG, Brunt ERP, Smith EA, et al. Episodic ataxia/myokymia syndrome is associated with point mutations in the human potassium channel gene KCNA1. Nature Genet 1994;8:136-40.

121. Eunson LH, Rea R, Zuberi SM, et al. Clinical, genetic, and expression studies of mutations in the human voltage-gated potassium channel KCNA1 reveal new phenotypic variability. Ann Neurol 2000;48:647-56.

122. Ophoff RA, Terwindt GM, Vergouwe MN, et al. Familial hemi-plegic migraine and episodic ataxia type 2 are caused by mutations in the Ca2+ channel gene CACNL1A4. Cell 1996; 87:543-52.

123. Terwindt GM, Ophoff RA, Lindhout D, Haan J, et al. Partial cosegregation of familial hemiplegic migraine and a benign familial epileptic syndrome. Epilepsia 1997;38:915-21.

124. Jouvenceau A, Eunson LH, Spauschus A, et al. Human epilepsy associated with dysfunction of the brain P/Q-type calcium channel. Lancet 2001;358:801-07.

125. Gibbs J, Appleton RE. False diagnosis of epilepsy in children. Seizure 1992;1:15-18.

126. Thomsen LL, Eriksen MK, Roemer SF, et al. A populationbases study of familial hemiplegic migraine suggests revised diagnostic criteria. Brain 2002;125:1389-91.

127. Chaves-Vischer V, Picard F, Andermann E, et al. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: six patients and long-term follow-up. Neurology 2001;57:1491-93.

128. Verret S, Steele JC. Alternating hemiplegia in childhood: a report of eight patients with complicated migraine beginning in infancy. Pediatrics 1971;47:675-80.

129. Casaer P. Flunarizine in alternating hemiplegia in childhood. An international study in 12 children. Neuropediatrics 1987;18: 191-95.

130. Silver K, Andermann F. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a study of 10 patients and results of flunarizine treatment. Neurology 1993;43:36-41.

131. Bourgeois M, Aicardi J, Goutieres F. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. J Pediatrics 1993;122:673-79.

132. Mikati MA, Kramer U, Zupanc ML, Shanahan RJ. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: clinical manifestations and long-term outcome. Pediatric Neurology 2000;23:134-41.

133. Bursztyn J, Mikaeloff Y, Kaminska A, et al. Hemiplegies alternantes de I'enfant et leurs anomalies oculo-motrices [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and oculomotor anomalies] J Francais d'Ophtalmologie 2000;23:161-64.

134. Zimprich A, Grabowski M, Asmus F, et al. Mutations in the gene encoding epsilon-sarcoglycan cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome. Nature Genetics 2001;29:66-69.

135. Asmus F, Zimprich A, Tezenas Du Montcel S, et al. Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome: epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations and phenotype. Ann Neurology 2002;52:489-92.

136. Tobias ES, Tolmie JL, Stephenson JBP. Cataplexy in the Prader-Willi syndrome. Arch Dis Childhood 2002;87:170.

137. Crow YJ, Zuberi SM, McWilliam R, et al. "Cataplexy" and muscle ultrasound abnormalities in Coffin-Lowry syndrome. J Med Genetics 1998;35:94-98.

138. Stephenson JBP. More than 'cataplexy' in Coffin-Lowry syndrome: tonic as well as atonic semiology in sound-startle collapse. Dev Med Child Neurol 1999;41 Suppl 82:28.

139. Nelson GB, Hahn JS. Stimulus-induced drop episodes in Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Pediatrics 2003;111:E197-202.

140. Stephenson JBP, Hoffman MC, Russell AJC, Falconer J, Beach RC, Tolmie JL, McWilliam RC, Zuberi SM. The movement disorders of Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Brain and Development, in press.

141. Brunquell P, McKeever M, Russman BS. Differentiation of epileptic from non-epileptic head drops in children. Epilepsia 1990;31:401-05.

142. DiMario FJ Jr. Childhood head tremor. J Child Neurology 2000;15:22-25.

143. Vrabec TR, Levin AV, Nelson LB. Functional blinking in childhood. Pediatrics 1989;83:967-70.

144. Kent L, Blake A, Whitehouse W. Eyelid myoclonus and absences: phenomenology in children. Seizure 1987;7:193-99.

145. Werlin SL, D'Souza BJ, Hogan WJ, et al. Sandifer syndrome: an unappreciated clinical entity. Dev Med Child Neurology 1980;22:374-78.

146. Vigevano F, Lispi ML. Tonic reflex seizures of early infancy: an age-related non-epileptic paroxysmal disorder. Epileptic Dis 2002;3:133-36.

147. Lombroso CT, Fejerman N. Benign myoclonus of early infancy. Ann Neurology 1977;1:138-43

148. Pachatz C, Fusco L, Vigevano F. Benign myoclonus of early infancy. Epileptic Disorders 1999;1:57-61.

149. Maydell BV, Berenson F, Rothner AD, Wyllie E, Kotagal P. Benign myoclonus of early infancy: an imitator of West's syndrome. J Child Neurology 2001;16:109-12.

150. Dravet C, Giraud N, Bureau M, Roger J, Gobbi G, Dalla Bernardina B. Benign myoclonus of early infancy or benign non-epileptic infantile spasms. Neuropediatrics 1986;17:33-8.

151. Holmes GL, Russman BS. Shuddering attacks. Evaluation using electroencephalographic frequency modulation radiotelemetry and videotape monitoring. Am J Dis Child 1986;140:72-3.

152. Vanasse M, Bedard P, Andermann F. Shuddering attacks in children: an early clinical manifestation of essential tremor. Neurology 1976;26:1027-30.

153. Kanazawa O. Shuddering attacks-report of four children. Pedi-atr Neurology 2000; 23:421-4.

154. Stephenson J, Breningstall G, Steer C, Kirkpatrick M, Horrocks I, Nechay A, Zuberi S. Anoxic-epileptic seizures: home video recordings of epileptic seizures induced by syncopes. Epileptic Disorders 2004;6:15-19.

155. Kuhle S, Tiefenthaler M, Seidl R, Hauser E. Prolonged generalized epileptic seizures triggered by breath-holding spells. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23:271-73.

156. Jeavons PM. Non-epileptic attacks in childhood. In: Rose FC (ed.). Research Progress in Epilepsy. London: Pitman, 1983.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

A. James Rowan,

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment