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glycoprotein immobilization, 236, 237

gold support preparation, 233 horseradish peroxidase, 237 materials, 231, 233 overview, 230

Piranha solution preparation, 233 thioctic acid monolayer modification of gold surfaces, 233

Heterofunctional supports, see Amino-

epoxy-Sepabead® Histidine-tagged enzyme immobilization, acetylcholinesterase, biosensor applications, 103-105 materials, 99

nickel functionalization of support,

100-102,104 nonspecific interaction evaluation, 102 support reusability assessment, 102, 104

gold support immobilization, ferredoxin-NADP reductase immobilization, 236 nitriloacetic acid metal chelating, 235 thioctic acid amidation, 235 one-step purification, immobilization, and stabilization on metal chelate-epoxy supports,

ß-galactosidase, 123-125, 127 glutaryl acylase, 121, 123, 127 immobilization, 120, 121, 126 materials, 119, 120, 126 principles, 117-119 support preparation and chemistry, 118, 120 rationale, 97-99 Horseradish peroxidase, gold support immobilization, 237 Hydrophilic microenvironment, generation, 8

Imprinting, see Cross-linked imprinting Industrial catalysis, enzyme advantages and limitations, 1, 2, 16, 17

historical perspective, 15, 17, 18 immobilized enzymes, assessment, 2-4 simplicity, 4 Ionic liquids, characteristics, 257-259 definition, 257 enzymatic transformations, biphasic systems, 260 historical perspective, 258 pure solvents in monophasic systems,

259, 260 water-miscible mixtures in monophasic systems, 260 enzyme immobilization systems, Candida antarctica lipase B, butyrate synthesis, 262, 263, 266 polyester synthesis, 265, 267 ß-galactosidase-catalyzed N-

acetyllactosamine synthesis, 264-267 materials, 260, 261, 266 Pseudomonas cepacia lipase-

catalyzed kinetic resolution of rac-2-pentanol, 263, 264 thermolysin-catalyzed aspartame synthesis, 261, 262, 266 recovery and cleaning, 265, 266 Isothermal titration calorimetry, immobilized enzyme studies, attachment scenarios, 297, 298

materials, 303

single point attachment and binding studies, 300, 305, 307, 308

Laccase, cross-linked enzyme aggregates, 41, 43

Lectin, see Concanavalin A immobilization

LentiKats®, characteristics, 334 enzyme entrapment, examples, 341-343 gelation and stabilization, 335-337 Lentikat production,

Lentikat®printer tool, 336, 338340 scale-up, 337 syringe method, 336-338 materials, 335, 337 polymer-biocatalyst solution preparation, 335, 337

Lipase, catalytic mechanism, 144 cross-linked enzyme aggregates, 36, 39, 41, 43

hydrophobic support adsorption, activity assay, 145, 151 desorption, 147

gel electrophoresis analysis, 146 hyperactivation, 6, 148 immobilization, 145, 151 ionic strength effects on adsorption, 147

isozyme separation, 148, 149 materials, 145 overview, 144, 145 reversibility, 149, 150 selectivity of immobilization, 147 stability in organic cosolvents, 146,

147, 151 stabilization, 146, 148 industrial application, 65, 66, 143 ionic liquid systems,

Candida antarctica lipase B, butyrate synthesis, 262, 263, 266 polyester synthesis, 265, 267 Pseudomonas cepacia lipase-

catalyzed kinetic resolution of rac-2-pentanol, 263, 264

polypropylene adsorption for use in organic medium, 253-255 sol-gel encapsulation, activity assay, 73, 74 double immobilization, 67 entrapment reaction, 73 hydrophobic modifications, 66, 67 kinetic resolution on preparative scale, 74 materials, 70, 72 optimization, 69-71 protein assay, 73 recycling, 69

structure and morphology of immobilizates, 67 supercritical fluid reactions with

Candida antarctica lipase B, butyl butyrate synthesis in membrane reactor, 278-280 immobilization on ceramic tubular membranes, 277, 278 kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenyl-ethanol in continuous packed-bed reactor, 276, 277, 280

Liposome,

L-asparaginase encapsulation, activity assay, 290 encapsulation efficiency determination, 290 liposome preparation, 289 materials, 287, 288, 290 recovery calculation, 290 enzyme immobilization, 285

Magnetic particle immobilization, amino-modified polymeric microspheres, 226 carbodiimide coupling, 223-225, 227 carboxyl-modified polymeric microspheres, 225, 226 direct binding, 220 fluidized bed reactors, 314 magnetic particles, physical and chemical properties, 220,221 preparation, 223, 227 materials, 221, 223, 226, 227 overview, 217-219

Medium, types, 9 Metal chelation, supports, 24, 25 Microalgae, applications, biosensors, 376, 377, 383, 384 high-value products, 377 metal removal, 381-383 overview, 373, 374 prospects, 384, 385 wastewater nitrogen and phosphate removal, 374, 376-381 immobilization, approaches, 374-377 coimmobilization with bacteria, 385,

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