Preparation Of Immobilization Of L-asparaginase Using Glutaraldehyde

Acetylcholinesterase, biosensor applications, 103-105, 245, 246

histidine-tagged enzyme immobilization, materials, 99

nickel functionalization of support,

100-102,104 nonspecific interaction evaluation, 102

support reusability assessment, 102, 104

insecticide biosensor preparation, electrochemical measurements, 248, 249

inhibition assays, 248, 249 materials, 246, 247, 249 screen printing, 247-249 sensitivity, 249 stabilization, 248

substrate concentration optimization, 248, 249

V-Acetyllactosamine, ß-galactosidase-catalyzed synthesis in ionic liquids, 264-267

Adsorption, affinity binding, 24 biosensors, 240 hydrophobic adsorption, 6, 24 ionic binding, 24 nonspecific, 23

Agarose, enzyme immobilization matrix, 18, 19

Aldehyde-dextran cross-linking, aldehyde-dextran preparation, 133, 140 a-amino acid hydrolase stabilization,

137, 138, 140 cross-linking reaction, 133, 134 ß-galactosidase stabilization, 134, 135 gel electrophoresis analysis, 134 materials, 132, 133, 140

multimeric enzyme immobilization on epoxy supports, 133, 140 principles, 131, 132 Algae, see Microalgae Alginate, applications, 345 gel features, 347-349 myoblast immobilization in microcapsules, cell pellet preparation, 350, 351, 353 electrostatic droplet generator, 350,

352, 353 materials, 350, 352, 353 microcapsule preparation, 351-353 overview, 350 structure, 346, 347 Alginate, bead entrapment of pullulanase and glucoamylase for fluidized bed reactors, 315, 316 a-Amino acid hydrolase, aldehyde-dextran cross-linking stabilization, 137, 138, 140

d-Amino acid oxidase, immobilization using glutaraldehyde, 60 Amino-epoxy-Sepabead®, advantages over conventional epoxy supports, 153, 154 multifunctional support overview, 154, 155

multipoint covalent attachment of proteins, desorption of excess protein, 157 enzyme preparation, 157, 160 epoxy group blocking, 158 P-galactosidase immobilization, 158, 159

glutaryl acylase immobilization, 159, 161

immobilization, 157, 161 materials, 157, 160

multi-interaction step, 157, 161 support preparation, 157, 160 principles, 155 Antibodies, immobilization, 9 l-Asparaginase, immobilization, liposomes, activity assay, 290 encapsulation efficiency determination, 290 preparation, 289-291 recovery calculation, 290 materials, 287, 288, 290 polylactide-coglycolide nanospheres, activity assay, 288, 289 encapsulation efficiency determination, 288 preparation, 288, 290 rationale, 286 therapeutic applications, 285, 286 Aspartame, thermolysin-catalyzed synthesis in ionic liquids, 261, 262, 266

Bioaffinity immobilization, see Biotin-

streptavidin; Concanavalin A immobilization Biofilm, see Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

Bioimprinting, see Cross-linked imprinting Bioluminescence analysis, biomass, concentration measurement, 394, 397 immobilized biomass determination, 395, 396 biosensors, applications, 395, 397 ATP content determination, 398, 399 materials, 397, 399 principles, 393-395 Biomass, see Bioluminescence analysis Biomedical applications, see Clinical applications

Bioreactors, fluidized bed reactors, see Fluidized bed reactors polyurethane foam immobilization of cells, see Polyurethane foam supercritical fluids, see Supercritical fluids types, 9, 311

vortex flow reactors, see Taylor vortex flow reactors Biosensor, see Bioluminescence analysis;

Enzyme electrodes; Microalgae Biotin-streptavidin, bioaffinity immobilization, 109 BTEX, see Gasoline hydrocarbons Butyl butyrate,

Candida antarctica lipase B synthesis in supercritical fluid membrane reactor, 278-280 Novozymes® synthesis in supercritical fluid stirred-tank reactor, 275, 276, 279, 280 Butyrate, Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed synthesis in ionic liquids, 262, 263, 266

Calorimetry, see Differential scanning calorimetry; Isothermal titration calorimetry CD, see Circular dichroism Cell immobilization, see Bioluminescence analysis; Gasoline hydrocarbons; Microalgae; Myoblast; Polyurethane foam; Transition metal immobilization Chymotrypsin,

Celite® adsorption for use in organic medium, 254, 255 multipoint covalent immobilization on epoxy supports, 52 polyethyleneimine ionic polymer support immobilization, 210, 211 Circular dichroism (CD), smart biocatalysts, 88, 90

CLEAs, see Cross-linked enzyme aggregates CLECs, see Cross-linked enzyme crystals Clinical applications, immobilized cells, historical perspective, 428, 429 microcapsule evaluation, 430-432

microencapsulation process, 429,

430, 432-434 therapeutic potential, 427, 432, 433, 434

immobilized enzymes, 283, 284 Concanavalin A immobilization, affinity layering, 109 applications, 110 P-galactosidase immobilization, activity assay, 111, 112 conjugation and immobilization on

Sephadex matrix, 112, 113 materials, 111, 112 glycoprotein immobilization, biosensor applications, 103-105 materials, 99, 100, 104 technique, 102, 103 principles, 107-109 rationale, 97-99 Covalent coupling, enzymes to supports, 19-21

Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), activity recovery, 34, 35 advantages, 39, 40 alcohol dehydrogenase, 42 assays, 41, 43 clustering, 36, 37, 39 combi-CLEAs, 35 filtration, 43

formate dehydrogenase, 42 galactose oxidase, 42 P-galactosidase, 42, 43 glucose oxidase, 42 historical perspective, 32, 33 isolation, 35, 39 laccase, 41, 43 lipase, 36, 39, 41, 43 materials, 40, 43 multimeric enzymes, 6 overview, 33, 34 phytase, 42, 43 scope of technology, 34, 35 structure, 36 trypsin, 42 Cross-linked enzyme crystals (CLECs), historical perspective, 32 multimeric enzymes, 6

Cross-linked imprinting, glucose oxidase, bioconversion of glucose or galactose, 181-183 cross-linking, 180-182 derivatization, 180, 181 imprinting, 180 materials, 179, 180 principles, 175-179 rationale, 175, 176 (,R)-Cyanohydrins, production with LentiKats-encapsulated oxynitrilase, 342, 343

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), equilibrium, 295, 296 immobilized enzyme studies, adsorption and thermal unfolding studies, 301-302, 306-308 attachment scenarios, 297, 298 immobilized protein preparation, 303,

304, 306, 308 materials, 303, 307 single point attachment and thermal unfolding studies, 298, 299, 303-305, 307, 308 Disulfide bond, enzyme immobilization, 25 thiol-disulfide exchange, see Thiol group immobilization DNA, immobilization, 9 DSC, see Differential scanning calorimetry

Electrodes, see Enzyme electrodes; Gold supports

Encapsulation, see also Liposome;

Poly(vinyl alcohol)-bearing styrylpyridinium groups encapsulation; Sol-gel encapsulation, biosensors, 240 principles, 242 Entrapment, enzymes, 21

LentiKats® system, see LentiKats® Enzyme electrodes, see also

Acetylcholinesterase, biosensor applications, 103-105, 240

diffusion limitations, 245 immobilization approaches, adsorption, 240 covalent bonding, 242-244 electro-polymerization, 242 electrode modification, 242 occlusion, 242

outer membrane entrapment, 240 reticulation, 244 self-assembled monolayers, 244 immobilization effects, conformational changes, 244 microenvironment changes, 245 Enzyme stabilization, multimeric enzymes, see also Aldehyde-dextran cross-linking, aggregates or crystals, 6 multisubunit attachment on preexisting supports, 5, 6, 130, 131

multipoint covalent immobilization, 5,

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