Biomedical Applications of Immobilized Cells

Enzyme Immobilisation Diffusion

Gorka Orive, Rosa Mar a Hern ndez, Alicia Rodr guez Gasc n, and Jos Luis Pedraz The aim of cell microencapsulation technology is to treat multiple diseases in the absence of immunosuppression. For this purpose, cells have been immobilized experimentally within carefully designed capsules that allow the long-term function of the graft. Recently, several advances have brought the whole technology much closer to a realistic proposal for clinical application. This chapter reviews the potential...

Purification Immobilization Hyperactivation and Stabilization of Lipases by Selective Adsorption on Hydrophobic Supports

Lipase Adsorption

Palomo, Gloria Fern ndez-Lorente, Cesar Mateo, Rosa L. Segura, Claudia Ortiz, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, and Jose M. Guisan Immobilization of lipases on hydrophobic supports at low ionic strength permits one-step purification, immobilization, hyperactivation, and stabilization of most lipases. This selective adsorption occurs because the hydrophobic surface of the supports is able to promote the interfacial activation of the lipases, yielding enzyme preparations having the open form of...

Encapsulation of Cells in Alginate Gels

Raft Systems Incorporate Alginate Gels

Gorka Orive, Rosa Mar a Hern ndez, Alicia Rodr guez Gasc n, and Jos Luis Pedraz Cell encapsulation represents one of the current leading methodologies aimed at the delivery of biological products to patients for the treatment of multiple diseases. Alginate is the most frequently employed material for the elaboration of the polymer matrix and outer biocompatible membrane because of its mild gelling and biocompatibility and biode-gradability properties. However, its successful exploitation...

Packed Bed Reactor

Recirculated Packed Bed Reactor Lipase

Applying SCFs and then to any scaling-processes is the fact that the high-pressure equipment needed is quite costly. Enzymes are not soluble in SCFs, and several free or immobilized enzymes lipases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, penicillin acylase, and cholesterol oxidase are used to catalyze chemical transformations e.g., esterification, hydrolysis, alco-holysis in SCFs 3-14 . As in the case of nonaqueous solvents, the role of water in enzyme-catalyzed reactions in SCFs can be analyzed by the same...

Application of Immobilized Algae

Air Lift Pump Photobioreactor

Production of High-Value Products Reports showed that immobilization has a significant impact on algal cell productivity. Hydrogen evolution from the filamentous alga Anabaena was reported to increase threefold following immobilization 22,23 . Brouers and Hall 23 and Bailliez et al. 24 demonstrated an enhanced production of ammonia and hydrocarbon, respectively, by Mastigocladus laminosus and Botryococcus spp. following immobilization. Santos-Rosa et al. 25 also found that Chlamydomonas...

Encapsulation of Enzymes Using Polymers and Sol Gel Techniques

Gel Entrapment Immobilization

This chapter describes two enzyme immobilization methods based on the biomolecule encapsulation into polymer matrices the sol-gel technology and the entrapment into the polymer poly vinyl alcohol with styrylpyridinium groups PVA-SbQ . The sol-gel technology is based on the formation of silica matrices of metal or semi-metal oxides through the aqueous processing of hydrolytically labile precursors. The encapsulation into PVA-SbQ involves the photo-cross-linking of the styrylpyridinium groups in...

Immobilization of Microalgae

Flow Chart Enzyme Immobilization

Several microalgae synthesize metabolites of great commercial interest. Microalgae also act as filters for wastewater N and P, heavy metals, and xenobiotic compounds. However, the cost-effective harvesting of microalgae is one of the major bottlenecks limiting the microalgal biomass applications. In this context, immobilization of algal cells has been proposed for circumventing the harvest problem as well as retaining the high-value algal biomass for further processing. In recent years,...