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Passion Blog Pro Review

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Passion Blog Pro Review Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Video Course
Author: Demetris Papadopoulos
Official Website: passionblogpro.com
Price: $47.00

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My Passion Blog Pro Review Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Technology Development and Entrepreneurship and the Demise of Traditional Microeconomic Thinking

In Chapter 2 a more thorough discussion of the emergence of entrepre-neurship in the biotechnology context is presented. The generic material in this chapter, coupled with the biotechnology specific exploration of entrepreneurship in Chapter 2 will set the scene for the detailed analyses and discussions in the ensuing chapters.

Entrepreneurship In Biotechnology

Fundamentally, entrepreneurship is considered to be the 'creation of new enterprise'. It incorporates both entrepreneurs as individuals and entrepreneurial firms. The entrepreneur is therefore the individual who creates the new enterprise. In the context of biotechnology, the bioentrepreneur operates in a knowledge-based and science-based industry, where competitive advantage is achieved through the effective management of intellectual property emanating from good science. The bioentrepreneur is often a who wishes to see their research successes put into practice through commercialization. In Chapter 1, the essence of entrepreneurship has already been stated as a process of becoming rather than a state of being (Mazzarol et al. 2000). This observation is also appropriate for the bioentrepreneur, as they go through a metamorphosis from researcher to fully-fledged entrepreneur. The following essential elements of entrepreneurship apply in the biotechnology industry. These include

Entrepreneurship And Innovation

Post-Fordist or post-industrial influences (Keeble 1997) have created a less antagonistic, even supportive environment for high technology companies and entire industries to emerge and grow. Such influences include rapidly changing environments, moves away from mass production toward customization and mass-customization, the application of generic technology which advances communication and production processes, a declining emphasis on price competition and price competitiveness through volume output and economics of scale. The central theme of this development has been the appropriate application of technology through innovation, which itself is dependent upon the skills and risk taking of an entrepreneur. Put sim-plistically in Figure 1.2, the essential features have a strong causal relationship. Figure 1.2 The relationship between factors in the improved standing of entrepreneurial businesses Figure 1.2 The relationship between factors in the improved standing of entrepreneurial...

Profiling The Bioentrepreneur

Bioentrepreneur

In arriving at a profile of the bioentrepreneur, having just gained a feel for the industry in which they operate, we must first define the broader concept of the technopreneur. The technopreneur is a breed of entrepreneur that has emerged in the last two decades as a part of the global era of knowledge economies and new technologies. Technopreneurs recognize the value of technology and invent new ways of using it to change their industries (Teague 2000). They also make much use of computers, the Internet and other modern advancements in developing the business venture and its operations. Their skill sets are therefore predominantly technical rather than business oriented. Profiles of technopreneurs illustrate certain similar attributes to traditional entrepreneurs such as innovation, opportunity identification and capture, risk-taking and perseverance. Bioentre-preneurship is essentially a subset of technopreneurship (Figure 2.1), that is, technopreneurs that have begun their...

What Is Bioentrepreneurship

Through their own research programmes, competing and in critical cases collaborating with the major established pharmaceutical companies known as Big Pharma. These first biotechnology companies were populated by scientists, assisted by merchant bankers and other entrepreneurial investors. They established strong IP positions protected by the patent system that has so successfully ensured success for Big Pharma, through which they could establish licensing and other deals with the likes of Eli Lilly, Pfizer, the newly created Sanofi-Aventis, Merck, GSK, Roche, Monsanto and DuPont to name but a few. Therefore, it appears at first glance, that traditional entrepreneurship has many similar characteristics to that of the new age bioentrepreneur. Yet, this deduction seems premature as there are other variables involved. For example, their backgrounds, education and organizational processes have yet to be taken into account.

What Is Traditional Entrepreneurship

The word 'entrepreneur' is derived from the French word 'entreprendre' meaning 'to undertake' (Ronstadt 1985, p. 28). The traditional entrepreneur is one who undertakes to control, coordinate and assume the risk of a business in a competitive marketplace. Today's entrepreneurs possess those same features and have to be versatile in facing the challenges of a dynamic environment. Today's entrepreneur is an innovator and developer of ideas he or she seizes opportunities and converts them into marketable entities at the same time they have to lead a team, seek out capital and resources while creating something unique and of value to others (Montagno et al. 1986). Although no single definition exists, it is commonly agreed that the entrepreneur is an agent of change, especially in a growing world of free enterprise and capitalism. In this sense, the traditional entrepreneur is the greatest risk-taker but ultimately claims the greatest rewards. This enviable nature of the entrepreneur...

Introduction Scope Of The Book

This book fills a market need in the fast-growing area of biotechnology management. Its key focus is the area of entrepreneurship and innovation in biotechnology, as it covers the main theoretical and practical aspects concerned with entrepreneurship in the biotechnology industry, focusing particularly on the innovation processes that underpin success for new biotechnology firms (NBFs). While the physical size of such companies may be small, resourcing and financing issues associated with major long-term R&D programmes are significant, as are potential returns. Entrepreneurship and innovation are major factors in all stages in the development of such companies however it has been recognized that the biotechnology industry globally is lacking in managers and researchers with appropriate entrepreneurial and commercial skills (Batterham 2000 Sainsbury 2002). The importance of the area is demonstrated in the priority afforded to entrepreneurship and innovation by universities, public...

Technology And Opportunity In Biotechnology

The important point to be made here is that entrepreneurship is about opportunity recognition and then realizing these opportunities. It is the dramatic advances in technology, paralleled by scientific discovery, which have created the footing for an industry. Entrepreneurs have populated this industry after the scientists and the technicians. Because of the technical and scientific understanding required to operate in many parts of the industry, entrepreneurs have not been attracted in large numbers from other industries (as is often posited in micro-economics). Hence many of the entrepreneurs have been home grown research leaders star scientists who have taken up the challenge themselves, either by choice or necessity, to progress their intellectual property along a commercialization path. While the biotechnology industry has not had the benefit of an influx of entrepreneurs from outside, it has been fortunate to co-exist with its big brother, the pharmaceutical industry. The...

Acquiring Technology Processes

Managing the innovation process therefore requires not only excellent R&D but also the development and release of final products or processes or services. This is very different to the normal pressures experienced by the bioentrepreneur, for three main reasons. First, the bioentrepreneur is frequently from either a research institution or a spin-off from a public sector research organization. Ernst and Young (2003) estimated that over 50 per cent of Australian biotech firms are generated from public sector research organizations. While Druilhe Garnsey (2004), estimated that a significant proportion of new firms in Cambridge, UK arise from 'serial' entrepreneurs who are familiar with the challenges associated with acquiring ongoing R&D funding from a variety of sources. The industry in some countries is too young to have serial entrepreneurs who have had success with previous ventures. For example in Singapore the number of successful bioentrepreneurs is limited by the very small...

Dreaming and the Autonomy of the Imagination

Tucker and Luu (1998) offer such a hypothesis. Freud thought of the day residue, those events of the preceding day that evoked the dream, as an entrepreneur who needed the venture capital of the unconscious wish to create a dream. Tucker and Luu offer an alternative possibility. The day residue provides a novel experience that requires the entire memory system to be readjusted. (Louie and Wilson's investigations of possibly dreaming rats, which I cited earlier, would support this hypothesis.) Tucker and Luu view the function of dreaming as a consolidation of memory, which involves an interleaving of new patterns with existing connections. They state, To the extent that new synaptic connection weights must convolve recent experience with

Opportunity Assessment

According to Hatten (1997), the major cause of new venture mortality is related to economic financial factors, in order of reported importance -insufficient capital, heavy operating expenses, burdensome debt, insufficient profits, industry market weakness. These problems are generic to all new ventures. NBFs are not immune to these issues, in fact insufficient profits is a problem impacting almost all biotechnology companies. Further to this the usual issue of inexperience, particularly in the biotechnology industry in which most entrepreneurs are home-grown, with a strong science but an insufficient business background and experience have an impact on mortality rates. The final in Hatten's list, neglect, is rarely an issue in biotechnology given the extensive efforts required to establish the company from what is normally an extensive publicly funded research project. While not neglect per se, excessive concentration on one side of the venture, usually the technical scientific may...

Entry Strategies And Barriers To Entry

It is in this situation that the larger businesses become more competitive and smaller businesses, because of their higher cost structures, become less competitive. Therefore, in general, in industries where economies of scale are starting to impact and price competition is becoming important, small businesses have little competitive advantage. This is where the establishment of a new business becomes more problematic.

Networks Collaborations And Social Capital

The personal associations developed throughout a scientist's career determine the extent of these networks and subsequently how entrepreneurial firms become embedded in the scientific community (Murray 2004). With the first advances in recombinant DNA in the 1970s, star bioscientists were very protective of the technique and their ideas. They tended to collaborate more within their own institution, which limited knowledge exchange (Zucker and Darby 1996). As the skills became more common, the knowledge more easily travelled through networks and diffused throughout the community. The literature cited above examines several patterns of knowledge exchange in the biotechnology industry. We propose a model to explain the drawing power exhibited by individuals or research teams, most evident in the behaviour of star scientists. Murray (2004) was of the opinion that the manner through which scientists contribute social capital, rather than human capital to entrepreneurial firms, was poorly...

IP and Confidentiality the Impact on Knowledge Sharing

According to Chesbrough (2003), companies either operate in a 'closed innovation' or 'open innovation' paradigm or both. Companies' management of IP is dependent critically on which paradigm they are in. In the close innovation paradigm, a company manages IP to create and maintain its idea and prevent others from using them. Whereas in the open innovation paradigm, a company manages IP to leverage its own business and learn new ways to apply and integrate new technologies offerings from others' use of the company's ideas.

The Development Of Life Cycle Concepts

Provides some indication of the influences of the various life cycles. In this diagram, there is only a dotted line for the feedback loop to show the influence the typical small biotech business has on its environment. This is because, though much has changed for small business, it is still rare to see them influence their external environment. Pioneers in markets - the entrepreneurial biotech companies - provide the exception to this rule as they can significantly influence a small evolving market. Therefore the market in which they operate is so small that they can exert market power. Of course this will only be maintained until the market grows, usually at a greater rate than the individual business, so that their market share diminishes over time.

Paths To Growth Scale Or Scope

A firm pursuing growth through expansion or product and distribution volume through scale production will eventually have to move from an organization based on the entrepreneurial tenets to a very different form of organization to manage the growth stage. Chaston (1997) supports Slevin and Covin's (1990) qualitative assertion that highly entrepreneurial organic businesses, at certain points in the life cycle of the firm, might consider becoming less entrepreneurial and adopting a somewhat more mechanistic structure. The life cycle literature reveals a tentative consensus on the characteristics of the next stage.

Academic science and the business of vaccines

Global Vaccines will utilize the business expertise, discipline and energy of an entrepreneurial business to circumvent many of the current limitations of the western vaccine industry, vaccine manufacturers in the developing world, and academia. The new company will have the flexibility to devise innovative solutions to vaccine problems of the developing world, not only in the laboratory, but also in licensing vaccine technologies and financing development and production of these vaccines. The primary objective of GVI will not be to maximize profit but rather to maximize the likelihood that a given vaccine concept will reach successful application in the field.

Lessons Learned and Future Research Needs

This ongoing research is essential if the full potential of other HACCP initiatives is to be realized. The catering sector is an important potential target for future initiatives, as it presents a risk to food safety (Griffith, 2000) and is dominated by a large number of small businesses (Mortlock et al., 1999). The evaluation of the butchery initiatives together with a better understanding of food hygiene behavior will identify the most appropriate sources and channels of information, effective learning and teaching strategies, factors that motivate business managers, and perceived barriers to HACCP. This will allow the development of better educational and training tools.

The Feasibility Study And Venture Screening

Figure 4.2 displays a stylized map of the enterprise creation process. The starting point of every new venture is a problem, and an idea for solving it. The developmental process of turning the idea into reality requires an assessment at an early stage so that the entrepreneur can gauge whether the idea is worth carrying through to market.

The Organizational Life Cycle

An old but still well respected perspective, Greiner's model (1972) represents a growth model of organizational evolution within the life cycle discipline and provides prescriptive statements for managers to plan and control growth. It deals with the individual behavioural aspects owner managers must face in the stages of growth. According to the model, initial growth is through creativity in the birth stage of an organization. The founders' technical or entrepreneurial orientation means communication is frequent and informal. As the firm grows, a crisis of leadership occurs as employee numbers increase. Hence, there is a need for efficient, large-scale production runs ahead of entrepreneurial drive and spirit. As a consequence, this first revolution will require subsequent changes to management style to achieve further growth. The next stage of growth though will be through direction, possibly under a new manager. A functional organization begins to develop through specialization...

The Global Biotechnology Industry

Biotechnology Life Cycle

The global biotechnology industry consists of more than 4700 companies, 611 of these are publicly-traded companies, which achieved a net loss of more than US 4.5 billion in 2003 (Ernst & Young 2004). These public biotechnology companies employed a total of 195 820 employees and achieved combined revenues of US 46.5 billion in 2003. R&D investment was comparatively high with US 18.6 billion invested. Table 13.1 shows the breakdown of the global biotechnology. The biotechnology industry is analogous to the information technology industry - populated by a large number of entrepreneurial high technology firms (Deeds et al. 1999). As a consequence the industry is characterized by continually changing technologies and intense competition. A strong entrepreneurial culture

Impact on Food Safety

The development of HACCP plans necessitated a detailed examination of existing prerequisite programs, and it is interesting to note that the greatest cost involved in running HACCP was the increase in cleaning costs. The prevention of cross-contamination in many small businesses relies not only on physical separation of cooked and raw meats, but also temporal separation and thorough cleaning between different activities. Increased awareness and hence improved cleaning represents a major impact on food safety risks. Similarly, the routine monitoring of temperatures within cold stores display cabinets increased with HACCP use, with a potential positive impact on food safety. Any initiative designed to improve food safety control in an industry sector requires evaluation. The retail butchery sector has a high proportion of small businesses with owner managers. It is recognized that such businesses experience difficulties in implementing HACCP. The initiatives in Wales and England appear...

Reputation Star Scientists And The Matthew Effect

One of the premises of intellectual gravity is that the described Matthew Effect extends beyond the attribution of accolades. Although we support the observations made by Merton and others, as the Matthew Effect was first described during a period of limited academic entrepreneurship, it does not take into account the commercial influences on the reputation of academic scientists. Therefore it does not accurately describe the attractive forces and the manner in which reputation is accredited in twenty-first century biotechnology. Today, as scientists become more productive, their eminence grows and more colleagues seek to collaborate with them, increasing the sourcing of ideas. Furthermore, greater eminence through academic and commercial success attracts more funding, allowing for increased publication output and subsequently more recognition (Oliver 2004). These effects reinforce each other and snowball, resulting in a 'compounded' Matthew Effect (Van Looy et al. 2004). Scientific...

Declining niche

Logically, a particular strategy or modus operandi is the appropriate response for effectively exploiting the state of the niche. A new niche would require innovative management approaches to niche exploitation (Howard and Hine 1997). In Thompson's (1999) schema, a charismatic role for the entrepreneur would be recommended because it leads to creative solutions.

Human Health

Entrepreneurial opportunity recognition at the governmental level. This early support and consequent funding has led to success stories such as Biocon India with a successful IPO recently Wockhardt which has launched three products - rDNA human insulin, a Hepatitis B vaccine and an Erythropoietin. There are also those success stories catering for the domestic market such as Bharat Serums which is manufacturing 125 million doses of oral polio vaccine (Grace 2004). With India a signatory to TRIPS from 2005, some doors will open, while others (largely in generics and products in which international IP has been ignored) will close. The drug regulatory process offers a significant challenge to the entrepreneurial biotech firm, given the complexity of testing stages and approvals required. The biotech firm therefore has more potential to attract significant partnerships with major pharmaceutical companies if it is able to offer a more integrated approach to drug development and testing....

Baseline Data

Business size was assessed using the number of full and part-time food handlers employed. A food handler was defined for this study as anyone who handled or prepared food whether open unwrapped or packaged. Business turnover was also used as a measure of business size. Table 8.2 shows business size for Welsh and English butchers. The results show that the retail butcher sector is dominated by small businesses, and that there is no difference in the baseline characteristics of businesses in Wales or England. The business status of survey respondents is shown in Table 8.4. The majority of response was from independent butcher shops. While this may not reflect the industry as a whole, as the major supermarket chains were not included in the study, it nevertheless demonstrates the prevailing nature of business ownership among butchers in Wales and England. The similarity in baseline data for the two studies provides a level of assurance that the slightly different data collection methods...

Discussion

Businesses were generally not knowledgeable about HACCP prior to the initiatives, although the small number of businesses who had implemented HACCP components had a significantly greater knowledge. Previous research has shown that lack of awareness and the difficulty of obtaining useful information present barriers to HACCP use (Mortlock et al., 1999). The initiatives overcame both the training and awareness technical support barriers. Small businesses are most likely not to perceive a need for formal hygiene management systems (Mortlock et al., 1999), and the wide agreement in this study with the statements that HACCP reduced the risk of the business causing food poisoning and increased staff hygiene awareness are indicators of the overall success of the training programs.

Commitment

Commitment acts as a moderating variable for intellectual gravity as many inventors are not willing to leave their tenured posts for a full-time position in a high-risk entrepreneurial firm. They will often be required to devote their time and energy to other organizations and projects. High organizational commitment demands two factors An important element with relevance to entrepreneurial commitment is the level of personal or emotional involvement. Affective organizational commitment develops in response to work experiences that produce personal fulfilment. Therefore commitment increases with the length of tenure with the organization as well as in the occupation (Beck and Wilson 2001). Personal satisfaction is one of a number of factors that can be deemed of value when obtained from the investment of energy into a venture. Only if some form of value is being exchanged from the venture can the relationship remain sustainable (Nahapiet and Goshal 1998). As a result, an academic...

Change As A Constant

Aldrich (1990) made the observation that a specialty, technology-based, innovation is often linked to entrepreneurship and business foundings. The scale imperative is explained by Chandler in recalling that 'in order to benefit from the cost advantages of these new high-volume technologies of production', entrepreneurs had to make three interrelated sets of investments. The first was an investment in production facilities large enough to exploit a technology's potential economies of scale or scope. It was this three pronged investment in production, distribution and management that brought the modern industrial enterprise into being (1990, p. 4). Scale was not only directed at production but at distribution and in a similar way management, in which replication of standardized practices created the volume advantage. This helps also explain to some extent the conglomeration of major biopharmaceutical players.

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