Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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Cardiac Energy Consumption Is Required to Support External and Internal Cardiac Work

Cardiac energy consumption (which is equivalent to cardiac oxygen consumption) provides the energy for both external work and internal work. Cardiac Efficiency. The efficiency of the heart in performing external work can be estimated by dividing the external work of the heart by the energy equivalent of the oxygen consumed by the heart. Only 5 to 20 of the energy liberated by cardiac oxygen consumption is used for external work under most conditions. Therefore, changes in external work do not reveal much about changes in energy consumption in the heart. This is because internal work, the major determinant of oxygen consumption and, thereby, cardiac efficiency, varies independently of external work. As we shall see, large increases in internal work can occur in the absence of changes in external work. When this happens, oxygen consumption increases and efficiency decreases. The difference between pressure work and volume work illustrates this point.

Energy Conservation

The concept of energy conservation is quite simple, and has often already been subconsciously incorporated into the everyday activities of a number of patients. The basic principle to impart on the participant is that they do not have a normal exercise tolerance and thus need to be aware of the ways in which they exert themselves and preserve energy in every possible way. A helpful analogy for individuals with COPD is to compare their energy state to a machine with limited battery storage. They do not have sufficient energy to achieve all tasks at full speed, and need to consider carefully how they will use the charge that is available to them. With appropriate rationing, they can achieve their goals and be able to achieve more than they thought possible through being more energy smart. Examples of energy conservation techniques are included in Table 3. This increase in efficiency is a very important part of the improvement of capacity that can be seen in patients with COPD, as the...

Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Iron

Iron, element 26 in the periodic table, is the second most abundant metal (after aluminium) and the fourth most abundant element of the earth's crust. Its position in the middle of the elements of the first transition series (so designated because their ions have incompletely filled d orbitals) implies that iron has the possibility of various oxidation states (from -II to +VI), the principal ones being II (d6) and III (d5), although a number of iron-dependent monooxygenases generate high valent Fe(IV) or Fe(V) reactive intermediates during their catalytic cycle. Whereas Fe2+ is extremely water soluble, Fe3+ is quite insoluble in water (Ksp 10-39 M and at pH 7.0, Fe3+ 10-18 M) and significant concentrations of water-soluble Fe3+ species can be attained only by strong complex formation. Iron(III) is a hard acid that prefers hard oxygen ligands while iron(II) is on the borderline between hard and soft, favouring nitrogen and sulfur ligands. The interaction between Fe2+ and Fe3+ and...

Probabilistic Risk Assessment Methodology

This section examines the basic elements of PRA, explaining when and how the various steps must be performed. PRA models have been used in a variety of applications over the past several decades. Applications have included evaluating what if scenarios of nuclear proliferation and atomic war, the probability of nuclear power plant meltdowns or less serious failures, and analysis of the risks in financial portfolios. Only recently have probabilistic techniques been used in a farm-to-table context for food-borne pathogens.

Energy Metabolism And Mechanoenergetics

The processes that account for the great majority of myocardial energy consumption are crossbridge cycling (myosin ATPase), Ca reuptake by the SR (SERCA2), and basal metabolism.59 Each crossbridge cycle consumes one high-energy phosphate bond, although at very rapid cycling rates it may be possible for one ATP to fuel more than one cycle. SERCA2 uses one high-energy phosphate bond for every two Ca ions pumped. As indicated earlier, the rate of energy consumption is heavily dependent on loading conditions and resulting work and power generation.58,59 The thermodynamic efficiency of heart muscle, its total mechanical energy output divided by its total chemical energy input, is uncertain, in large measure because of difficulties in quantifying total energy output. A more conventional approach is estimation of efficiency of external work production.58 External work efficiency is heavily dependent on loading conditions, ranging from a maximum under unloaded conditions to zero for an...

Foraging Strategies

Insect behavior can be viewed from the standpoint of efficiency of resource acquisition and allocation (Sterner and Elser 2002, see also Chapter 4). Foraging should focus on resources that provide the best return and minimum risk for the effort expended. Hence, bumble bees, Bombus spp., forage on low-energy resources only at high temperatures when the insects do not require large amounts of energy to maintain sufficiently high body temperature for flight (Bell 1990, Heinrich 1979,1993). Other host-seeking insects tend to focus their searching where the probability of host discovery is highest (i.e., where hosts are concentrated or most apparent) (Bell 1990, Kareiva 1983).

Current Laser Technologies

The current emphasis in laser technologies has moved to solid-state lasers, which are compact, energy efficient, and reliable with long operational lifetimes. The basic foundation of the solid-state laser technologies is provided by diode lasers. Diode lasers are highly efficient ( 20 conversion of the electrical energy into light emission) and cover a broad range of wavelengths, but are continuously tunable only over a narrow wavelength range, allowing selection of one appropriate monochromatic wavelength at a time. A major driving force has been their applications in optical telecommunications, for which diode lasers of wavelengths 980nm, 1300nm, and 1550nm are needed. The 980- and 1300-nm diode lasers can be of significant value in biophotonics for bioimaging because of their greater penetration in biological tissues (a topic discussed in Chapter 6). energy efficient but expensive) Numerous, one of the main workhorses 100-W CW for surgery (e.g., prostate) Coagulation and...

Risk Factors For Appetite Control

The tendency to gain weight is associated with a low basal metabolic rate, low energy cost of physical activity, a low capacity for fat oxidation (relatively high respiratory quotient RQ), high insulin sensitivity, low sympathetic nervous system activity and a low plasma leptin concentration. In the state of obesity itself many of these risk factors (or predictors of weight again) are reversed.

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

(Van de Graaf) accelerator which, in turn, is linked to a high energy (5 to 150 MeV ion) momentum charge spectrometer system for positive ions. Negative ions are produced from solid samples by bombardment with 3 to 10 keV cesium ions in a cesium-sputtering ion source (similar to FAB). After separation by the low-energy mass spectrometer, the selected negative ions are accelerated to high energy ( 5 to 10 meV) inside the Van de Graaf accelerator. On the way toward the positive terminal of the accelerator, the negative ions pass through a carbon foil that removes electrons from the ions, making them positively charged. The positive ions are next accelerated back to their ground potential, and preselected isotopes with the desired charge state are focused onto the entrance of the second dipole magnetic MS for subsequent detection by a multi-anode gas ionization detector.116

ATP the Energy Currency of the Biochemical World

When, for example, in a cell a compound X-Y needs to be synthesized from the two components X-OH and H-Y, then one component must first be energized. This is done when the high-energy ATP transfers a phosphate group to X-OH. By this reaction, ATP is degraded to the low-energy ADP. The two components now combine and release a phosphoric acid. Finally, ATP is regenerated again from ADP by taking up the phosphoric acid and releasing a water molecule. However, this regeneration reaction occurs only when energy is added. In plants the energy is provided by sunlight, and in animals by the combustion of food.

Catabolite repression of the lac operon positive control

The existing lac system is one that, through a long evolutionary process, has been selected to operate in an optimal fashion for the energy efficiency of the bacterial cell. Presumably to maximize energy efficiency, two environmental conditions have to be satisfied for the lactose metabolic enzymes to be expressed.

Collision Induced Dissociation

Low-energy collisions, with kinetic energies of ions in the range of 1 to 100 eV, primarily excite the vibrational states of an ion, leading to narrow internal energy distribution, and production of a limited variety and quantity of product ions. The nature and degree of fragmentation depend strongly on the collision energy employed and, to a lesser degree, on the type and pressure of the collision gas. Low-energy collisions can be carried out conveniently in triple quadrupole or hybrid instruments. When the precursor ions are accelerated to 1 kV, the high-energy collisions (often with helium) excite the electronic state of the analyte and produce a broad distribution of acquired internal (vibrational) energies, resulting in significant fragmentation and therefore a great deal of structural information. In addition, nonenergy-related collision conditions, such as the type, pressure, and temperature of the collision gas, have little influence, making the spectra more reproducible than...

Transportation Of Radioactive Tissues

In most countries, transportation legislation is based on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards 28 . The basic principles of transportation regulation in the United States and the European Union are described below. If transportation cannot be executed according to the local regulations, it may be necessary to store the tissues until the 99mTc has decayed. In all cases, it is sensible for the nuclear medicine physician or radiation safety officer to be aware of exceptions and changes to national regulations.

Tandemin Time Trapped Ion Techniques

In quadrupole ion traps (IT), MS MS is carried out in time rather than in space. There are four basic steps (1) selection of the mass of the precursor (parent) ion (2) application of the excitiation voltage to the end cap electrodes of the IT and injection of a collision gas (3) dissociation of the energized ions to form product ions and (4) mass analysis of the product ions. In IT, the ions momentarily accelerated to higher kinetic energies in the presence of the collision gas are decelerated by the excitation waveform. This acceleration deceleration process, which lasts for 1 ms, leads to multiple collisions and other low-energy processes that generally produce spectra that contain only a limited number of fragment-ion types. This may necessitate the carrying out of additional CID experiments to generate a second generation of product ions from the initial set of fragments, e.g., MS3. Fortunately, such experiments are relatively easy tasks to accomplish with IT analyzers. As...

Problems of Prediction

Note Emission estimates were mandated by Congress through Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Title XVI). Gases that contain carbon can be measured either in terms of the full molecular weight of the gas or just in terms of their carbon content. Note Emission estimates were mandated by Congress through Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Title XVI). Gases that contain carbon can be measured either in terms of the full molecular weight of the gas or just in terms of their carbon content.

Adapted for the Aquatic Life

Territorial and spend the rest of their time traveling, investigating objects, and socializing. Manatees are considered semisocial, and the typical social unit is a female and her calf however, congregations of up to two hundred individuals can be found near warm water sources such as power plant outfalls and hot springs, especially during winter months.

Experimental Stroke Disease Phenotyping Using Mrimrs

Due to the vital role of energy metabolism for proper tissue function, noninvasive 31P MRS has been applied to monitor levels of HEP such as ATP and PCr, characterizing the metabolic state of tissue (Figure 8.2). Cerebral HEP synthesis not matching HEP consumption will ultimately lead to energy failure, to brain dysfunction, and ultimately to brain death. This is the case, e.g., for status epilepticus, during which energy consumption is dramatically increased. Prolonged seizures have been shown to compromise tissue levels of PCr and later of ATP with a concomitant increase of intracellular pH reflecting anaerobic glucose metabolism 7 . Brain ischemia has analogous metabolic consequences during global cerebral ischemia, PCr levels disappear within 2 min following cessation of blood flow, while ATP reservoirs are depleted within typically 4 min following cardiac arrest 9 . Intracellular pH values drop from a normal value of 7.2 to values around 6.5, depending on the resting blood...

Computational Methods To Identify Peptides And Proteins Using Msms Spectra

Common MS MS database search routines, such as SEQUEST,10 Mascot,11 and MS-Tag,12 each take an uninterpreted MS MS spectrum as input and identify a best-fit peptide for the output. Specifically, candidate peptides near the same nominal mass of the measured peptide mass are selected from the sequence database. Theoretical fragment ions are calculated for each of these candidate peptides using common dissociation rules. The calculated fragment ions, composed of both N-terminal ions and C-terminal ions, are specific for the mass spectrometer acquiring the data. Under the low-energy (a few keV) collision-induced dissociation conditions commonly encountered in mass spectrometers such as ion traps, triple quadrupole, and quadrupole TOF instruments, peptides primarily fragment at the amide bonds on the peptide backbone generating what are termed B-ions and Y-ions.13 The high-energy CID conditions encountered in other types of instruments, including magnetic sector and TOF-TOF instruments,...

Satiating Properties Of Macronutrients

In contrast to popular belief an overall nutritional goal in dietary treatment of obesity is to increase the proportion ofcarbohydrates in the diet since carbohydrate rich foods have high satiating properties, especially when compared to fat. Numerous studies have demonstrated that fat not only is the most energy dense macronutrient but also has weak satiating properties (5). Table 30.1 summarizes the characteristics of macronutrients in their ability to regulate daily dietary food intake. A key issue in dietary treatment strategies for obesity has thus been not only to reduce the daily energy intake but also in particular to cut fat to 30 or less of total energy intake. Carbohydrates generally appear in starchy and fibre-rich natural products, which means that a diet rich in natural carbohydrates will have a low energy density and thus enhance satiety. If fat intake is reduced, the protein proportion of the daily food intake will increase. The role of the protein in a diet for weight...

Patient education

Energy conservation techniques encourage the accomplishment of tasks with the expenditure of a minimal amount of energy. An appropriate balance of work and rest must be determined. Patients tend to try to get everything done on good days, when short rest breaks of 5 to 10 minutes during daily activities can be

Specialisations cold adaptation and evolution

The evolution of antifreeze glycoproteins (AF-GPs) in Antarctic and Arctic fish is a classical example of adaptation developed independently at both poles. To avoid death by freezing at subzero temperatures, fish in these environments have evolved antifreeze molecules secreted at high concentrations into their blood (reviewed by Cheng 1998). Because of the constant freezing temperatures, Antarctic notothenioids synthesise AFGPs constitutively, whereas in Arctic fish AFGPs exhibit seasonal patterns of biosynthesis. This is an efficient energy-saving strategy, that avoids costly biosynthesis when freezing is not a danger. At the same time, it suggests that even a small increase in environmental temperatures will not pass unnoticed in biosynthesis control.

Studying Sexual Reproduction

Most biologists who study reproduction are either ecologists, ethologists, or geneticists. Their methods include counting various kinds of offspring and measuring their genetic variability. Reproductive ecologists and ethologists also measure parental investment, or the amount of energy used by individuals of each type (and each sex) in the courting of their mates, in the production of gametes, and in caring for their young. Energy costs of this kind are generally measured by comparing the food consumption of individuals engaged in various types of activity using statistical methods of comparison among large numbers of observations.

What is the Hypothetical Nature of the Extraterrestrials

As advances in knowledge lead to an increase in power, it is not surprising that already, 40 years ago, the Russian physicist Nicolai Kardashev (1964) has envisioned extraterrestrial intelligent civilizations with technical capabilities vastly superior to ours. He has classified these societies into three categories Type I societies have a technological level and an energy consumption similar to ours. This would mean that they control a power of 4 x 109 kW.

Bees food quality and body temperature

Increasing Body Temperature Bees

In bees, it appears that food quality modulates thermal behaviour. For example, workers of the Asian honeybees A. cerana and A. dorsata landing at highly congested feeders tend to have higher Tth, and congestion depends on food quality (Dyer and Seeley 1987). Similarly, the Himalayan honeybee A. laboriosa maintains high temperature excesses when arriving at feeders to collect concentrated sugar solution (Underwood 1991). Thermal imaging has proved a valuable technique in studying this variability in thermoregulation of honeybee foragers under field conditions. Honeybees regulate Tth at higher levels and more accurately for fast exploitation of profitable food sources (Schmaranzer and Stabentheiner 1988). Honeybees foraging on different plant species also have variable Tth, with dandelion foragers being 10oC warmer than those visiting sunflowers (Kovac and Schmaranzer 1996). Perhaps the observation that bumblebees allow their Tth to drop below the minimum for flight while foraging on...

The Ventricle As A Muscle

Muscle Tension Starling

Two extensions of elastance theory have proven valuable in understanding ventricular function. The first is its application to ventricular mechanoenergetics.i27 The main determinants of VO2 traditionally have been considered HR, afterload, and contractility (basal metabolism accounts for a significant fraction of VO2 but is not subject to much variability). HR is obviously a critical determinant of energy consumption per unit time. However, the difficulty in even defining contractility was discussed earlier. Moreover, it is not obvious how contractility or afterload is related quantitatively to the two major energy-consuming processes in heart, ECC and crossbridge cycling. EW at any preload. Even though ES volume is smaller, which in and of itself decreases PE, this is at least partially compensated by increased Emax, which serves to increase the area under the ESPVR. The net result is increased PVA in association with more energy used for crossbridge cycling by the contractile...

The Lipostat Theory Predicts the Feedback Regulation of Adipose Tissue

Lipostat Theory

The lipostat theory postulates a mechanism that inhibits eating behavior and increases energy consumption whenever body weight exceeds a certain value (the set point) the inhibition is relieved when body weight drops below the set point (Fig. 23-30). This theory predicts that a feedback signal originating in adipose tissue influences the brain centers that control eating behavior and activity (metabolic and motor). The first such factor, leptin, was discovered in 1994, and several others are now known.

In Which Case There Is A Range Of Values Of P For Which A Finite Positive Cell Volume Is Possible And For Which There

This representation is appropriate at high pump rates, where effects of saturation are of no concern. Notice that P is proportional to the rate of ATP hydrolysis, and hence to energy consumption. Thus, as u decreases, so also does the rate of energy consumption. With this change, the equation for the sodium concentration becomes

Mechanical Activity in Smooth Muscle Is Adapted for Its Specialized Physiological Roles

Length Tension Curve Smooth Muscle

A high economy of tension maintenance, typically 300 to 500 times greater than that in skeletal muscle, is vital to the physiological function of smooth muscle. Economy, as used here, means the amount of metabolic energy input compared to the tension produced. In smooth muscle, there is a direct relationship between isometric tension and the consumption of ATP. The economy is related to the basic cycling rate of the crossbridges Early in a contraction (while tension is being developed and the crossbridges are cycling more rapidly), energy consumption is about 4 times as high as in the later steady-state phase of the contraction. Compared with skeletal muscle, the crossbridge cycle in smooth muscle is hundreds of times slower, and much more time is spent with the crossbridges in the attached phase of the cycle.

Pollinator Functional Groups

Pollination Bees Hopea

Pollinator functional groups also have been distinguished on the basis of habitat preferences, such as vegetation stratum (Fig. 13.2). Appanah (1990) distinguished four groups of plant-pollinator associations in a tropical lowland dipterocarp forest in Malaysia. The forest floor stratum was characterized by low visibility and limited airflow. Floral rewards were small, reflecting low productivity of light-limited plants and low energy requirements of associated pollinators, and flowering times were extended, increasing the probability of pollination by infrequent visitors. The plant-pollinator association of this stratum was dominated largely by nonselective, low-energetic beetles, midges, and other flies. These pollinators were attracted over short distances by strong olfactory cues,

Internal Atrial Defibrillators

Gem Defibrillator

The success and safety of using low-energy internal cardioversion for AF led to the development of the implantable atrial defibrillator (IAD). The IAD could operate automatically in a manner similar to a ventricular defibrillator, but since AF is rarely an emergency, cardioversion could be delayed for hours, allowing for spontaneous termination of AF, an attempt at pharmacological conversion, and or patient sedation. The typical candidate for an IAD is a patient with persistent and symptomatic AF occurring relatively infrequently despite treatment with antiarrhythmic medications. Patients with paroxysmal AF, which always spontaneously resolves, are not candidates because electrical cardioversion is not required. Two types of IADs have been developed one is capable of atrial defibrillation only ( atrioverter ), whereas the other is capable of both atrial and ventricular defibrillation.

Ecological implicationsUVB and the structure of seaweed communities

Field (i.e., the species inhabiting the intertidal and the upper sublittoral zone) possess different and largely efficient mechanisms for acclimation to respond to changes in light climate. However, formation of screening compounds as well as the development of further protective mechanisms require additional energy costs, which may result in reduced growth and primary productivity (Roleda et al. 2006a). This problem is still largely unaddressed but an important field of future investigation. As long as the energy costs for applying protective mechanisms remain unknown a reduction of seaweed productivity in response to increased UVB levels in future cannot be excluded.

From Dinosaurs to Birds

Paleontologists have suggested that ground-dwelling bipedal dinosaurs gave rise to birds, and thus avian flight developed from the ground up. This viewpoint is flawed, since the dinosaur-ian proavis would have had to overcome gravity by running, which would not be energy-efficient. Moreover, bipedal dinosaurs, by virtue of their well-developed hindlimbs, had their center of mass in the pelvis, a situation which would create an unbalanced torque that would flip the animal attempting to fly. Any lift generation in the chest would act vertically at the forelimb area. The pelvic center of mass would act as a downward force in the rear of the animal, resulting in a rotation of the body. Flying birds have their center of mass and center of lift in roughly the same place, and thus rotations of this kind do not occur. It is likely that birds originated from arboreal reptilian ancestors that were quadrupeds. Jumping or falling from a tree would create a cost-free air flow about the body...

General Principles Of Antiarrhythmic Therapy

Atrial Fibrillation Intracardiac Signal

Pharmacodynamic effect in which a function of a device (ICD or pacemaker) is altered (9,9a). Drugs may alter the characteristics of spontaneous defibrillation energy requirements, capture threshold, or intracardiac signal amplitude or duration. Devices are usually set with wide margins of safety. Therefore, small changes caused by anti-arrhythmic drugs are usually of no clinical consequence. However, if the thresholds for an individual patient are near the maximum capacity of the device, there is a risk of failure to properly detect and terminate the arrhythmia. The effects may be of greater significance in the future, when devices will be programmed with narrower tolerances to reduce energy consumption. Of greater clinical significance are the effects of anti-arrhythmic drugs on the spontaneous VTA. Drugs can slow the rate of VTA, increase the beat-to-beat variability, and render the presumed reentrant circuit refractory to penetration by paced impulses. These changes can alter the...

Human And Ecological Relevance Of Leaves

Pennyroyal Mosquito Plants

Humans use shade trees and shrubs in landscaping for cooling as well as for aesthetic effects. The leaves of shade plants planted next to a dwelling can make a significant difference in energy costs to the homeowner. Humans also use for food the leaves of cabbage, parsley, lettuce, spinach, chard, and the petioles of celery and rhubarb, to mention a few. Many spices and flavorings are derived from leaves, including thyme, marjoram, oregano, tarragon, peppermint, spearmint, wintergreen, basil, dill, sage, cilantro, and savory.

Secondary Productivity

Net primary production provides the energy for all heterotrophic activity. Consumers capture the energy stored within the organic molecules of their food sources. Therefore, each trophic level acquires the energy represented by the biomass consumed from the lower trophic level. The rate of conversion of NPP into heterotroph tissues is secondary productivity. As with primary productivity, we can distinguish the total rate of energy consumption by secondary producers from the energy incorporated into consumer tissues (net secondary productivity) after expenditure of energy through respiration. Secondary productivity is limited by the amount of net primary production because only the net energy stored in plants is available for consumers, secondary producers cannot consume more matter than is available, and energy is lost during each transfer between trophic levels.

Respiratory Metabolism

Members of the genus Legionella exhibit a strictly respiratory form of metabolism and do not grow anaerobically. Moreover, anaerobic respiration with nitrate or other electron acceptors has not been demonstrated. The electron transport chain is composed of cytochromes of the b, c, aa3, and d types and the legionellae are cytochrome oxidase positive. The electron transport chain is branched with cytochrome c' aa3 (cytochrome c oxidase complex) and cytochrome d as terminal electron acceptors (Hoffman and Pine, 1982). Each of these terminal oxidases binds carbon monoxide as validated by laser-assisted photochemical action spectral studies (author's unpublished studies). It is likely that each of the terminal oxidases exhibits a different Km for oxygen and functions under different oxygen tensions or stages of growth. Few studies have examined the bioenergetics of L. pneumophila either in vivo or in vitro. It is likely that late in intracellular growth molecular oxygen becomes limiting...

Effect of salinity temperature and desiccation on supraand eulittoral seaweeds

Osmotic acclimation in response to salinity changes is a fundamental mechanism of salinity tolerance that conserves intracellular homeostasis (Kirst 1990). The acclimation process in Antarctic Chlorophyta involves the metabolic control of the cellular concentrations of osmolytes. The major inorganic osmolytes are potassium, sodium and chloride (Karsten et al. 1991b Jacob et al. 1991), the cellular concentrations of which can be rapidly adjusted with low metabolic energy costs, especially compared to the cost of organic osm-olyte biosynthesis or degradation (Kirst 1990). However, protein and organelle function, enzyme activity and membrane integrity in seaweeds are adversely affected by increased electrolyte concentration. Hence, the biosynthesis and accumulation of organic osmolytes in the cytoplasm permits the generation of low water potentials without incurring metabolic damage. For these organic compounds that are tolerated by the metabolism even at high intracellular...

Plants without Seeds From Sea to Land

Residents of the coal-producing central Chinese city of Changsha almost never see the sun, because it is hidden behind an atmosphere dense with choking smog. Nine-tenths of the precipitation in Changsha is acid rain. China burns more coal than any other country in the world, and the resulting untreated smoke leads to disastrous conditions such as those in Changsha, the site of a major coal-fired power plant.

Beneficial and Destructive Mollusks

Another mollusk problem is foreign invasion, exemplified by zebra mussels (Dreissna poly-morpha). These pistachio-nut-sized European saltwater mussel invaders were released into the Great Lakes from the hulls of ocean-going vessels in the late 1980's. They flourish in the Arkansas, Hudson, Mississippi, Ohio, and Saint Lawrence rivers. Superabundant reproduction (a female lays a million eggs per year) yields myriad larvae that, as adults, clog power plant and factory water intakes, requiring costly cleanup. More problematically, they eat microbes in the water, damaging the lifestyles of indigenous wildlife that also use this food. It is estimated that the mussels cost industry and consumers over 500 million per year.

External and Internal Cardioversion and the Atrial Defibrillator

For patients in whom external cardioversion is unsuccessful, low-energy internal cardioversion is a viable alternative (73). Sinus rhythm can be restored in 70-80 of patients who have failed external cardioversion, by delivering energy between electrodes in the lateral right atrium and the coronary sinus (CS) or the left pulmonary artery. Because of the success of low-energy internal cardioversion, an implantable atrial defibrillator (IAD) has been studied extensively. In a recent multicenter trial, the atrial defibrillator proved to be safe and efficacious in terminating episodes of AF (74). However, 48 of 51 patients were receiving an antiarrhythmic at the end of the trial, and there was a 2-4 risk of complications, including cardiac tamponade, infection, lead repositioning, and subclavian-vein thrombosis. Larger studies are needed to address the problem of high atrial defibrillation thresholds, which excluded 50 of the patients screened. One of the main advantages of the atrial...

Properties of Cybernetic Systems

Cybernetic systems generally are characterized by (1) information systems that integrate system components, (2) low-energy feedback regulators that have high-energy effects, and (3) goal-directed stabilization of high-energy processes. Mechanisms that sense deviation (perturbation) in system condition communicate with mechanisms that function to reduce the amplitude and period of deviation. Negative feedback is the most commonly recognized method for stabilizing outputs. A thermostat represents a simple example of a negative feedback mechanism. The thermostat senses a departure in room temperature from a set level and communicates with a temperature control system that interacts with the thermostat to readjust temperature to the set level. The room system is maintained at temperatures within a narrow equilibrial range.

Properties Of Smooth Muscle

The properties of skeletal muscle described thus far apply in a general way to smooth muscle. Many of the basic muscle properties are highly modified in smooth muscle, however, because of the very different functional roles it plays in the body. The adaptations of smooth muscle structure and function are best understood in the context of the special requirements of the organs and systems of which smooth muscle is an integral component. Of particular importance are the high metabolic economy of smooth muscle, which allows it to remain contracted for long periods with little energy consumption, and the small size of its cells, which allows precise control of very small structures, such as blood vessels. Most smooth muscles are not discrete organs (like individual skeletal muscles) but are intimate components of larger organs. It is in the context of these specializations that the physiology of smooth muscle is best understood.

Gamma Ray Detection Probe

Figure 3 Advantage of low-energy radiation with 125I no collimation needed, tissue attenuation, and negligible Compton scattering. (From Ref. 14. Copyright 1999 Springer-Verlag. Reprinted by permission of Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co.) Figure 3 Advantage of low-energy radiation with 125I no collimation needed, tissue attenuation, and negligible Compton scattering. (From Ref. 14. Copyright 1999 Springer-Verlag. Reprinted by permission of Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co.)

Postoperative Details

Posttreatment convalescence is relatively rapid, and most patients are able to void in less than 3 d at home, with a mean recovery time of 5 d at home. With low-energy protocols, 12-36 of patients require catheterizations for up to 1 mo, whereas 10 of patients undergoing high-energy protocols require catheterization for more than 3 mo. Patients with larger prostates are more prone to catheterization because of increased edema. Studies of the Prostatron 2.0 have shown that 34 of patients are unable to void 2 h after the procedure, and an additional 6 of patients require a catheter after initially voiding. In comparison, with the Prostatron 3.5, urinary retention is expected in all patients. The average length of catheterization is 1-2 wk. With the Targis system, patients are catheterized routinely for 2 d.

The Many Types of Magnetic Resonance Examination

As expected, the former state of alignment is preferred and the majority of nuclei in a large 'ensemble' or collection of nuclei will assume this state (low energy). However, a certain proportion of the nuclei will be anti-aligned (high energy) and it is this population difference that underlies the phenomenon of NMR. In the presence of a pulse of electromagnetic waves whose energy corresponds to the difference between these two states, the energy from these waves will be absorbed by the system - a process of resonance (hence nuclear magnetic 'resonance') - and the populations of spins in the two states will be equalized. The frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum (in the order of tens of megahertz) that is suitable for this purpose is known as radiofrequency (RF). The energy which is used in the process by which the MR image is acquired is not known to cause any harmful biologic effects. As compared to both X-rays (as in CT) and radioisotopes (as in positron-emission...

Resource Budget

The actual energy costs of foraging have been measured rarely. Fewell et al. (1996) compared the ratios of benefit to cost for a canopy-foraging tropical ant, Paraponera clavata, and an arid-grassland seed-harvesting ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. They found that the ratio ranged from 3.9 for nectar foraging P. clavata and 67 for predaceous P. clavata to 1000 for granivorous P. occidentalis (Table 4.2). Differences were a result of the quality and amount of the resource, the distance traveled, and the individual cost of transport. In general, the smaller P. occidentalis had a higher ratio of benefit to cost because of the higher energy return of seeds, shorter average foraging distances, and lower energy cost m-1 traveled. The results indicated that P. clavata colonies have similar daily rates of energy intake and expenditure, potentially limiting colony growth, whereas P. occidentalis colonies have a much higher daily intake rate, compared to expenditure, reducing the likelihood of...

Mm Of The Cell

The association of water with other molecules usually takes the form of hydrogen bonds. These bonds have relatively low energy, yet they are vital to the molecular architecture of the cell. Salts are usually present in ionic form and many of these are associated with macromolecules. Salt ions are also important to the osmotic behavior of cells and to the buffering activities. Gases that enter the cell from the environment or are produced by cell's metabolism dissolve in the cytoplasmic water.

Sphingolipids

Neutral glycosphingolipids are best detected in the positive ionization mode as M+H + or M+Li + ions, although they also form M+HCOOr and M+Cl -adducts in the negative ionization mode 19,88,98,99 . Upon low-energy CAD, the M+H ions dissociate by a neural loss of the glycan, the charge remaining in the ceramide moiety. At higher collision energies, the sphingoid base (-1 or 2 H2O) is the characteristic product ion and thus these lipids can be selectively detected by scanning for precursors of the different sphingoid bases. In some tissues, galactosyl- and glucosylceramides contain additional hydroxyl groups in the sphingoid base and or in the fatty acyl moiety. LC-MS allows for accurate quantitation of these lipids, especially with MS MS 9,19 . It must also be noted that GlcCer and GalCer are isobaric, and thus distinction of these molecules requires their prior separation by LC 87 . Alternatively, they can be distinguished by CAD of chlorinated adducts 99 .

Shaft fractures

Most fractures follow low-energy indirect twisting injuries, resulting in long spiral fractures. Occasionally, these occur without significant obvious trauma in 1-6 year olds, the fracture may present with reluctance to weight-bear and local inflammation similar to infection. X-rays may be unhelpful, but an isotope bone scan is usually positive. Direct 'bumper' injuries cause more complex fracture patterns.

Pelvisring Fractures

Fractures of the pelvis follow high-energy trauma, frequently in association with other major skeletal, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic trauma. Stability of the fracture depends upon the integrity of the pelvic ring. Blood loss may be dramatic, requiring swift intervention. Twenty to twenty five per cent of fatal accidents have associated pelvic fractures and the mortality rate following pelvic fractures is 9-19 . Less severe fractures occur in the elderly osteoporotic patient following low-energy trauma.

Societal Mechanisms

Food distribution has undergone major changes over time that are making food almost universally available and accessible, deterring people from running out of food and facilitating higher levels of energy consumption. The proliferation of institutions offering food such as grocery stores, restaurants, vending machines, take away or carry out foods, food delivery, mobile food vendors, catering, etc., has made it rare to be in a place where food is not available. The ease of obtaining food at all hours of the day or night in almost all places has removed barriers to eating for almost everyone (although because of social inequalities a small portion of society experiences food insufficiency and food insecurity (84)). The increasing durability of food products has also overcome barriers of time and space in making calories more available to virtually all people at all times in postindustrial societies (11). The portion sizes of food in foodservice operations are also increasing,...

Reduction

When skeletal stability is lost, the soft tissues may provide some stability. Charnley described utilization of the soft tissue hinge or 'ligamentotaxis', on the concavity of a fracture (dorsally in a Colles' fracture). In high-energy injuries the soft tissue envelope is disrupted to a greater extent than in low-energy injuries - consequently reduction will be less stable.

Denitrification

If N2 fixation is the entry point to the biosphere for combined N, then denitrification is the clear exit. In this case, its importance as a sink for combined N is incidental to its physiological significance. When O2 falls to 5 M, it becomes energy efficient for many heterotrophic bacteria to facultatively use the denitrification pathway to respire OM with NO3- as an electron acceptor 25

Cooling the Body

Crease their body temperature to a few degrees above their surrounding temperature to reduce heat loss and conserve bodily energy stores. This can be a hibernation lasting throughout the winter months or a period of torpor lasting for the night. This lower body temperature, however, is not a decrease in body temperature as observed in coldblooded animals, but a new, highly regulated body temperature attained by lowering the animal's metabolic rate. It is a very important strategy for energy conservation and survival.

Defensive Behavior

Plants That Sequester Toxins

Defense conferred by camouflage reduces the energy costs of active defense but may require greater efficiency in foraging or other activities that could attract attention of predators (Schultz 1983). Insects that rely on resemblance to their background (crypsis) must minimize movement to avoid detection (Fig. 4.10). For example, many Homoptera that are cryptically colored or that resemble thorns or debris are largely sedentary while siphoning plant fluids. Many aquatic insects resemble benthic debris and remain motionless as they filter suspended matter. Cryptic species usually restrict necessary movement to nighttime or acquire their food with minimal movement, especially in the presence of predators (Johansson 1993). Such insects may escape predators by waiting until a predator is very close before flushing with a startle display, giving the predator insufficient warning to react. However, some birds use tail fanning or other scare

Commotio Cordis

Commotio cordis, or cardiac concussion, refers to sudden death caused by a relatively low-energy chest-wall impact. Although a rare syndrome, it has been reported with increasing frequency in young individuals participating in athletic activities (169-176). Commotio cordis typically occurs in youths age 5-16, who are participating in athletic activities in which there is blunt impact to the chest. Commotio cordis has usually been described with baseball, but has also been reported with hockey, lacrosse, fistfights, soccer, and other athletic activities. In all instances, a chest-wall impact results in rapid Experimental models of high-energy chest-wall trauma have shown that bradyarrhyth-mias (sinus bradycardia, heart block) and tachyarrhythmias (VT, VF) could result from myocardial contusion (178-180). However, these models of chest-wall trauma did not accurately reproduce commotio cordis, in which the force of chest-wall impact does not result in any cardiac pathology. To study the...

Software Advances

One such approach uses a combination of molecular modeling and a simple rule set to predict initial sites of fragmentation and the subsequent decay products that give rise to the fragmentation pathways observed in low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) 70 . Bond energies are calculated for each bonded atom pair in the molecule using molecular-mechanics force fields developed specifically for the task. The bond energies are ranked to predict the initial sites of fragmentation. To rank atom pairs according to bond energy, one assumes that the quasi-equilibrium theory applies to the fragmentation reaction 71 . If the assumption holds, then the weakest bonds will be preferentially cleaved to produce the most frequently observed initial fragments. The energy that remains in the fragments is often observed to be released by chemical reactions driven by formation of neutral leaving groups. A second modeling algorithm allows a list of common neutral losses to be searched as...

Allergen Avoidance

This means making an effort to avoid the allergen or irritant particle that is responsible for the allergy. These measures are most effective if you are only allergic to one substance in particular. For allergy to house dust mite, avoidance means that quite an effort is required, as the use of energy-saving double glazing, along with the use of central heating, have increased the number of house dust mites that live in our homes. These measures appear to be worth doing only if they are done thoroughly.

Depression

Dysthymic disorder involves at least 2 years of a depressed mood that occurs for most of the day on more days than not. At least two of the following symptoms must be present poor appetite or overeating insomnia or hypersomnia low energy or fatigue low self-esteem poor concentration or difficulty making decisions feelings of hopelessness. Additional criteria to be met The person has never been without the symptoms for more than 2 months at a time, and the mood disturbance is not easily distinguished from the person's usual functioning. (In contrast, a major depressive episode represents a change from the person's previous functioning.)

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