Conventions Regarding Acids Bases And Ions

In many structures, the abbreviation P is used to represent the phosphate group and PP the diphosphate (or pyrophosphate) group:

acids are shown in unionized form, although they will typically exist as zwitterions:

P (phosphate)

PP (diphosphate)

At physiological pHs, these groups will be ionized as shown, but in schemes where structures are given in full, the unionized acids are usually depicted. This is done primarily to simplify structures, to eliminate the need for counter-ions, and to avoid mechanistic confusion. Likewise, amino



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