Inulin Origin Chemistry Biochemistry and Technological Properties

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Chapter 3 Inulin: A Fructan

3.1 Fructans

3.1.1 Definition

3.1.2 Chemistry of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Fructans

3.1.3 Biochemistry: The Biosynthetic Pathways of Fructans

3.1.4 Natural Occurrence of Fructans

3.1.4.1 Occurrence of Fructans in Plants

3.1.4.2 Occurrence of Fructans in Fungi

3.1.4.3 Occurrence of Fructans in Bacteria

3.2 Inulin

3.2.1 History of Inulin

3.2.2 Chemistry and Biochemistry of Inulin

3.2.3 Distribution of Inulin in Plants

3.2.4 Biological Functions of Inulin in Plants

3.3 Chicory Inulin

3.3.1 Description of Chicory Inulin

3.3.2 Nomenclature of Inulin

3.3.3 Industrial Production of Inulin and Oligofructose and Related Products

3.3.4 Technological Properties of Chicory Inulin and Oligofructose

3.3.5 Analytical Methodologies Reference

Chapter 4 The Digestive Functions: Inulin-Type Fructans as Nondigestible Oligosaccharides

4.1 Digestion of Carbohydrates in the Gastrointestinal Tract

4.1.1 Carbohydrate Hydrolysis in the Oral Cavity and the Stomach

4.1.2 Carbohydrate Hydrolysis in the Small Intestine

4.1.3 Methods to Study the Digestibility of Oligo and Polysaccharides

4.2 Absorption of Hexoses in the Small Intestine

4.3 Inulin-Type Fructans as Nondigestible Oligosaccharides (NDOs) 4.3.1 Methodologies and Results

4.3.1.1 Linkage Analysis of Inulin-Type Fructans

4.3.1.2 In Vitro Models To Demonstrate Resistance of Inulin-Type Fructans to Digestion

4.3.1.3 Rat Models to Demonstrate, In Vivo, the Resistance of Inulin-Type Fructans to Digestion

4.3.1.4 Human Models To Demonstrate, In Vivo, the Resistance of Inulin-Type Fructans to Digestion

4.3.1.5 Experimental and Human Data Demonstrating That Inulin-Type Fructans Resist Digestion 4.4. Inulin-Type Fructans as Nondigestible Oligosaccharides: Discussion and

Conclusion References

Chapter 5 The Digestive Functions: Inulin-Type Fructans as Fermentable Carbohydrates

5.1 The Colon as a Fermenter

5.2 The Anaerobic Fermentation of Proteins

5.3 Anaerobic Fermentation of Carbohydrates

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Substrates of Colonic Carbohydrate Fermentation

5.3.3 Anaerobic Degradation of Carbohydrates during Colonic Fermentation

5.3.3.1 Hydrolysis of Oligo- and Polysaccharides

5.3.3.2 Catabolic Pathways of Carbohydrates in Colonic Microorganisms

5.3.3.3 Metabolic Pathways Transforming Pyruvate in Colonic Microorganisms

5.3.4 Overview of the Biochemistry of Production of Fermentation End Products by Human Colonic Microflora

5.3.4.1 The Concept of Healthy Colonic Microflora

5.3.4.2 Production of SCFAs

5.3.4.3 Production of Lactate

5.3.4.4 Production of Gases

5.3.4.5 Metabolism of H2

5.3.5 Methodologies for the Study of the Colonic Fermentation of Carbohydrate

5.3.5.1 Introduction

5.3.5.2 In Vitro Models to Study the Fermentation of Carbohydrates by the Colonic Microflora

5.3.5.3 In Vivo Models to Study the Fermentation of Carbohydrates by the Colonic Microflora

5.4 Anaerobic Fermentation of Inulin-Type Fructans

5.4.1 The Process of Fermentation: Results and Discussion

5.4.1.1 In Vitro Data

5.4.1.2 In Vivo Data

5.4.2 Side Effects of Fermentation of Inulin-Type Fructans

5.5 Discussion and Conclusion References

Chapter 6 The Digestive Functions: Inulin and Oligofructose as Dietary Fiber

6.1 Dietary Fiber: A Concept in Human Nutrition 6.1.1 History

6.1.2 Definition of Dietary Fiber

6.1.3 The Dietary Fiber Components

6.1.4 Analysis of Dietary Fiber

6.1.5 Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fiber

6.1.6 Physiological Properties of Dietary Fiber: Their Effects on Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

6.1.6.1 Resistance to Digestion

6.1.6.2 Effects on Upper Gastrointestinal Functions

6.1.7 Physiological Properties of Dietary Fiber: Their Effects on the Large Bowel

6.1.7.1 Colonic Fermentation

6.1.7.2 Bowel Habit

6.2 Inulin and Oligofructose as Dietary Fiber

6.2.1 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Concept of Dietary Fiber

6.2.2 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Analysis of Dietary Fiber

6.2.3 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fiber

6.2.4 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Effects of Dietary Fiber on the Gastrointestinal Tract

6.2.4.1 Resistance to Digestion

6.2.4.2 Inulin and Oligofructose, and Upper Gastrointestinal Functions

6.2.4.3 Colonic Fermentation of Inulin and Oligofructose

6.2.4.4 Inulin and Oligofructose, and Lower Gastrointestinal Functions

6.2.4.5 Effects of Inulin and Oligofructose on Bowel Habit

6.2.5 Conclusion References

Chapter 7 Inulin and Oligofructose as Low-Calorie Carbohydrates

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Methodologies to Assess Energy Value of Inulin-Type Fructans

7.3 Assessment of Energy Value of Inulin and Oligofructose: Results and Discussion

7.3.1 Stoichiometry of Metabolism by Bifidobacteria

7.3.2 Stoichiometry of Fermentation by Intestinal Microflora

7.3.3 Efficiency of Microbial Biomass Production

7.3.4 ATP Yield of the Metabolism of the Fermentation End Products by the Host

7.3.4.1 Absorption and Excretion of SCFAs and Lactate

7.3.4.2 Cellular Metabolism of SCFAs and Lactate and ATP Yield

7.4 Inulin and Oligofructose as Low-Calorie Carbohydrates: Conclusion References

Chapter 8 Inulin-Type Fructans and Gastrointestinal Functions: Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 9 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Modulation of the Intestinal Microflora: The Prebiotic Effect

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Concept of Colonic Health

9.1.2 Concept of Balanced Colonic Microflora

9.2 Prebiotics: Definition and Requirements for Scientific Substantiation

9.3 Methodologies for the Study of the Composition of the Gut Microflora

9.3.1 Culture on Selective Media

9.3.2 Molecular Methodologies

9.3.2.1 Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

9.3.2.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction

9.3.2.3 Direct Community Analysis

9.3.2.4 Denaturing or Temperature-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

9.4 Inulin-Type Fructans Classify as Prebiotic: Scientific Substantiation

9.4.1 Experimental Evidence

9.4.1.1 In Vitro Data

9.4.1.2 In Vivo Data

9.4.2 Human Data

9.5 Inulin-Type Fructans as Prebiotics: Discussion and Perspectives 9.5.1 Qualitative Aspects of the Prebiotic Effect

9.5.2 Quantitative Aspects: The Prebiotic Index

9.5.3 Conclusions and Perspectives References

Chapter 10 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Intestinal Absorption of Minerals

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The Physiology of Calcium

10.2.1 Calcium Metabolism

10.2.2 Calcium Intake and Bone Health

10.2.3 Calcium Requirements and Recommendations

10.2.4 Improving Calcium Intakes and Calcium Bioavailability in the Population

10.3 The Physiology of Magnesium

10.3.1 Magnesium Metabolism

10.3.2 Magnesium Requirements and Recommendations

10.4 Methodologies for the Study of Mineral Absorption and Bone Health

10.4.1 Methodologies for the Study of Ca and Mg Absorption

10.4.1.1 Metabolic Balance Studies

10.4.1.2 Tracer Studies

10.4.1.3 Kinetics of Urinary Ca Excretion

10.4.2 Methodologies for the Study of Bone Health

10.4.2.1 Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover

10.4.2.2 Bone Mineral Mass and Density

10.5 Inulin-Type Fructans: Mineral Absorption and Bone Health

10.5.1 Inulin-Type Fructans and Ca Absorption

10.5.1.1 In Vitro Data

10.5.1.2 Animal Data

10.5.1.3 Human Data

10.5.2 Inulin-Type Fructans and Mg Absorption

10.5.2.1 Animal Data

10.5.2.2 Human Data

10.5.3 Inulin-Type Fructans and Bone Health

10.5.3.1 Bone Structure and Bone Quality

10.5.3.2 Bone Mineralization

10.5.3.3 Bone Density

10.5.3.4 Bone Turnover

10.6 Inulin-Type Fructans and Gastrointestinal Absorption of Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Phosphate

10.6.1 Inulin-Type Fructans and Absorption of Iron

10.6.1.1 Animal Data

10.6.1.2 Human Data

10.6.2 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Absorption of Copper and Zinc

10.6.2.1 Animal Data

10.6.2.2 Human Data

10.6.3 Inulin-Type Fructans and Phosphate Absorption

10.7 Inulin-Type Fructans — Mineral Absorption and Bone Health: Discussion, Perspectives, and Conclusion

10.7.1 Protocols and Methodologies

10.7.2 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Absorption of Minerals

10.7.3 Mechanisms

10.7.4 Conclusion References

Chapter 11 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Homeostasis of Lipids

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Biochemistry of Lipid Metabolism 11.2.1 Metabolism of Triacylglycerols

11.2.2 Metabolism of Cholesterol and Lipoproteins

11.2.3 Methodologies to Study Lipid Metabolism and Lipid Homeostasis

11.2.3.1 In Vivo Experiments

11.2.3.2 Ex Vivo Protocols

11.3 Inulin-Type Fructans and Lipid Homeostasis

11.3.1 Animal Data

11.3.1.1 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Healthy Experimental Animals Fed a Standard Diet

11.3.1.2 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Healthy Experimental Animals Fed Hyperlipidemic Diets

11.3.1.3 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Genetically Modified Animals Prone to Develop Obesity or Hypercholesterolemia

11.3.2 Human Data

11.3.2.1 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Normolipidemic Subjects

11.3.2.2 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in (Slightly) Hyperlipidemic Subjects

11.3.2.3 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetic (NIDDM) Subjects

11.3.3 Mechanisms of the Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Lipid Homeostasis

11.4 Inulin-Type Fructans and Lipid Homeostasis: Discussion, Conclusion, and Perspectives

References

Chapter 12 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Defense Functions of the Body

12.1 Introduction: The Defense Functions of the Body

12.1.1 Innate Components of the Body's Defense

12.1.2 Acquired Components of the Body's Defense

12.2 Role of the Gastrointestinal System in the Body's Defense

12.2.1 Gastrointestinal Mucosa and Defense Functions: Generalities

12.2.1.1 Gastrointestinal Mucosa as a Barrier

12.2.1.2 Gastrointestinal Mucosa as a Safeguard

12.2.2 Intestinal Microflora and the Gastrointestinal System in the Body's Defense

12.2.3 The Gastrointestinal Mucosa and the Body's Defense Functions: Specific Mechanisms

12.2.3.1 Defense Mechanisms in the Oral Cavity

12.2.3.2 Defense Mechanisms in the Stomach

12.2.3.3 Defense Mechanisms in the Intestine

12.2.4 Biomarkers of Gastrointestinal Defense Functions 12.2.4.1 Biomarkers of Barrier Functions

12.2.4.2 Biomarkers of Safeguard Functions

12.2.4.3 Indirect Measurements of Defense Functions

12.3 Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Defense Functions

12.3.1 Dietary Fiber and Immune Function

12.3.1.1 Effects of Fermentable Dietary Fibers on Immune Functions

12.3.1.2 Mechanisms of the Effects of Fermentable Fibers on Immune Functions

12.3.2 Probiotics, Immune Functions, and the Risk of Immune-Associated Diseases

12.3.2.1 Effects of Probiotics on Immune Functions

12.3.2.2 Mechanisms of the Effects of Probiotics on Immune Functions

12.3.2.3 Probiotics and Disease Risk Associated with Dysfunctional Gastrointestinal Defenses

12.4 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Gastrointestinal System's Defense Functions

12.4.1 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Biomarkers of Gastrointestinal Barrier Functions

12.4.1.1 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Intestinal Epithelia

12.4.1.2 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Colonization Resistance and Translocation of Microorganisms

12.4.1.3 Effects on Chemical Safeguard Functions

12.4.1.4 Effects on Enzymatic Safeguard Functions

12.4.1.5 Effects on Immune Defense Functions

12.4.2 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on the Risk of Diseases Related to Dysfunction of Gastrointestinal Defense Functions

12.4.2.1 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on the Risk of Traveler's Diarrhea

12.4.2.2 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on the Risk of Irritable Bowel Diseases (IBD)

12.4.2.3 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Risk of Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

12.4.2.4 Effects of Inulin-Type Fructans on Risk of Colon Cancer

12.5 Inulin-Type Fructans and Systemic Defense Functions

12.5.1 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Risk of Systemic Infection

12.5.2 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Risk of Chemically Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis

12.5.3 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Growth of Implanted Tumors

12.5.4 Effect of Inulin-Type Fructans on Metastasis

12.5.5 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Potentiation of Cancer Therapy

12.6 Inulin-Type Fructans and Defense Functions: Overview, Discussion, and Perspectives

References

Chapter 13 General Discussion, Perspectives, and Conclusions

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General Discussion

13.2.1 Inulin-Type Fructans and the Functional Food Concept

13.2.2 Inulin-Type Fructans: Health and Well-Being

13.2.3 Inulin-Type Fructans and Specific Food Applications

13.2.3.1 Inulin-Type Fructans and Infant Formulas

13.2.3.2 Inulin-Type Fructans and Feed for Domestic Animals and Pets

13.3 Conclusions and Perspectives References

Part I

Introduction

1 Functional Foods and Claims: Concepts, Strategy of Development, Requirements for the Scientific Substantiation of Claims, and Communication with Consumers

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