1n is the number of rats.

2weeks is the number of weeks of treatment.

3CV = conventional flora.

4AD = adult rats.

5GR = growing rats.

6The number in () is the fold increase in the proportion of butyrate in the pool of SCFAs.

7HF = human flora.

the preventive effect of oligofructose on osteopenia, the same group has reported that feeding oligofructose (10% w/w in diet for 10 d) significantly increased the weight of the mucosa (2.1 times and 1.4 times in the cecum and the colon, respectively) and of the mucosal proteins (2.8 times and 2.1 times in the cecum and the colon, respectively) in the large bowel.103

In one experiment that compared the effects of three doses of inulin, a dose-effect relationship was reported, showing an increase in cecal wall weight and a reduction in cecal pH.109 In the same experiment, cecal blood flow was also increased by inulin treatment and the effect was dose dependent. In germ-free rats, inulin did not affect the weight of the cecum, the cecal pH, the total amount, or the concentration of acetate, the only SCFA identified (Figure 6.5).121

Similarly, in the large intestine of neonatal pigs, the fermentation of oligofructose increased the height and leading edge of the mucosa crypt, as well as the epithelial cell density and proliferation, thereby preventing colonic epithelial atrophy observed in piglets fed an elemental diet.123

In heteroxenic rats harboring a human fecal flora and fed with an inulin diet as compared to a standard diet, jejunal as well as cecocolonic epithelia had higher villi, deeper crypts, more goblet cells per crypt, and an increased mucin layer. This effect

Cecal wall weight (g) Cecal blood flow (mL/min)

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