Table

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Gravimetric Method vs. the Component Analysis of Dietary Fiber in Food Products Gravimetric Method AOAC 985.25 (AACC 32.05) Not requiring sophisticated equipment Disadvantages Limited to total dietary fiber Applicable to separate soluble or insoluble fibers (precipitation in 80 ethanol) made available and validated for any specific substance that is proposed or accepted to be a part of the dietary fiber concept. 6.1.5 Physicochemical Properties of Dietary...

Discussion And Conclusion

Oligofructose and inulin are completely fermented mainly, if not exclusively, in the colon (at least in humans) and, consequently, they are not recovered to any significant extent in the feces. As a result of colonic fermentation, excretion of breath H2 is significantly increased. As discussed above (see Section 5.3.5.3), if this is a valid marker of intestinal fermentation, it cannot be considered a quantitative measurement of the extent of fermentation. In adequate experimental models (e.g.,...

Inulin Type Fructans and Bone Health 10531 Bone Structure and Bone Quality

In healthy rats, feeding oligofructose (5 w w in diet) influenced local bone structure as shown by an enhanced (p < 0.05) bone volume in the neck and in the secondary spongiosa in the metaphysis of the femur, suggesting that oligofructose feeding might have an inhibitory effect on bone resorption.133 The effect of oligofructose on bone structure was studied in a long-term protocol using adult ovariectomized female rats and a computer-supported image analysis of contact microradiographs134 was...

Effects of Fermentable Dietary Fibers on Immune Functions

The major effects of dietary fiber on immune functions that have been reported so far include 67-78 An increase in IgA-positive cells in small intestine and cecal mucosa An increase in IgA secretion in cecal content An increase in IgA in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes An increase in CD4+ T-cells in mesenteric lymph nodes An increased proportion of CD8+ in intraepithelial lymphocytes in col-orectum A decrease in CD4+ CD8+ ratio in spleen An increase in cecal and colonic macrophages An...

Effects of Inulin Type Fructans on Absorption of Minerals

In experimental animals (mostly rats), a large number of publications demonstrate that inulin-type fructans significantly increase mineral absorption, essentially Ca and Mg, but also Fe and Zn. The effects on Cu and P absorption are less documented, and the available data are less convincing. Except for one study that reported that oligofructose was more efficient than inulin in promoting recovery from postgas-trectomy anemia in rats,142 all inulin-type fructans (native inulin, oligofructose,...

Effects of Inulin Type Fructans on Lipid Parameters in Genetically Modified Animals Prone to Develop Obesity or

Homozygous low-density lipoprotein receptor knock out mice (LDLR- -) is a recognized model of atherosclerosis.28 Indeed, these mice develop spontaneous hyperc-holesterolemia with elevated levels of LDL and IDL and arteriosclerosis due to a genetic defect-deficiency of functional LDL receptors which is analogous to the genetic defects in humans with familial hypocholesterolemia.29,30 After 3 weeks of treatment and throughout the study that lasted for 16 weeks, LDLR- - mice fed inulin (10 w w of...

Conclusions And Perspectives

As discussed in the first chapter, and as described in the Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe Consensus Document 50 The design and development of functional foods is a key issue, as well as a scientific challenge, which should rely on basic scientific knowledge relevant to target functions and their possible modulation by food components. Emphasis is then put on the importance of the effects of food components on well-identified and well-characterized target functions in the body...

Calcium Intake and Bone Health

The Ca found in mineralized tissues, bones, and teeth (99.9 of all body Ca) is in the form of a phosphate salt, namely hydroxyapatite or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (together with a small component of carbonate salt) that provides rigidity and structure.5 During skeletal growth and maturation, i.e., until the early 20s in humans, Ca accumulates in the skeleton at an average rate of 150 mg d. During maturity, the body, and therefore the skeleton, is more or less in Ca equilibrium. From the age of about 50...

Mechanisms of the Effects of Fermentable Fibers on immune Functions

Even though the mechanism for the effect of fermentable dietary fibers on immune function in the intestine has not been fully established, interesting hypotheses have been proposed that include Production of SCFAs from fiber fermentation. A number of studies support the direct or indirect immunomodulatory properties of SCFAs.79,80 Indeed, supplementing total parenteral nutrition with SCFAs results in increased natural killer cell activity.79 Moreover, other studies have demonstrated...

In Vivo Models to Study the Fermentation of Carbohydrates by the Colonic Microflora

In vivo fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates can be studied both in experimental and domestic animals as well as in pets or in human volunteers. In experimental animals, especially rats, the carbohydrate under investigation is added to food (5, 10, or even 15 w w) or drinking water (5 to 10 w v, depending on water solubility), but it can also be administered by gastric intubation. Animals are then anaesthetized and sacrificed at predetermined time intervals. Fecal samples and the content...

Dietary Fiber A Concept In Human Nutrition

Lignin Composition Cereals

The health benefits of fiber-rich food have been recognized for at least 2500 years. Indeed, already in 430 B.C., Hippocrates described the laxative effect of coarse wheat in comparison to refined wheat.1 In the 19th century, a recommendation was already made to increase the fiber content in diet, and in 1920, publications by J. H. Kellogg claimed that foods rich in bran increase stool weight, promote laxation, and prevent diseases.2 Hispley was the first to use the expression dietary fiber...

Toxic Chemicals Carcinogen

FIGURE 12.1 Schematic representation of the body's defense with special emphasis on the intestinal processes TLRs Toll-like receptors XME xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes . FIGURE 12.1 Schematic representation of the body's defense with special emphasis on the intestinal processes TLRs Toll-like receptors XME xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes . chemical, biological, and microbiological status of the luminal content. Inflammation is one of the cell-mediated barrier processes that contribute to...

The Anaerobic Fermentation Of Proteins

Protein Fermentation End Product

Nitrogen in the chyme that reaches the large bowel is almost exclusively in the form of proteins and peptides, both form exogenous dietary and endogenous pancreatic enzymes, mucins, etc. origin. Daily, in an average European-type diet, a total amount of 7-15 g of proteins reach the colon and are likely to be fermented, these include 3-9 g of dietary and 4-6 g of endogenous mainly pancreatic enzymes peptides and proteins.15 For the carbon, nitrogen, and energy of these compounds to benefit the...

Gastrointesttinal Tract

Kudoh, K., Shimizu, J., Ishiyama, A., Wada, M., Takita, T., Kanke Y., Innami, S., Secretion and excretion of immunoglobulin A to cecum and feces differ with type of indigestible saccharides, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 45, 173-181, 1999. 78. Kudoh, K., Shimizu, J., Ishiyama, A., Wada, M., Takita, T., Kanke Y., Innami, S., Effect of indigestible saccharides on B lymphocyte response of intestinal mucosa and cecal fermentation in rats, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 44, 103-112, 1998. 79. Pratt, V....

Typical Examples of Food Technology Applications of Chicory Inulin Oligofructose and Their Derivatives

Breakfast cereals Fruit preparations Body and mouth feel Foam stability Sugar and fat replacement Synergy with sweeteners Sugar and fat replacement Synergy with sweeteners Texture and melting Fat replacement Texture and spreadability Emulsion stability Sugar replacement Moisture retention Crispness and expansion Sugar replacement Synergy with sweeteners Body and mouth feel Fat replacement Texture and stability Sugar replacement Heat resistance Source Adapted from Franck, A., Coussement, P.,...

Digestion Of Carbohydrates In The Gastrointestinal Tract

Digestion Carbohydrates

In the human diet, the most common carbohydrates are starch, sucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose, and dietary fibers. Most 50-60 of daily intake carbohydrates are starch, which is a mixture of linear amylose and branched amylopectin polymers of glucose with D-1, 4 and D-1, 4 D-1, 6 linkages, respectively. Starch, as well as the disaccharides lactose and sucrose, is hydrolyzed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal system Figure 4.1 , essentially the oral cavity and the small intestine,...

References

H., The Large Intestine in Nutrition and Disease, Danone Chair Monograph, Institut Danone, Brussels, Belgium, 1997. 2. Gibson, G. R., Roberfroid, M. B., Dietary modulation of the human colonic micro-biota introducing the concept of prebiotics, J. Nutr., 125, 1401-1412, 1995. 3. Rowland, I. R., Interactions of the gut microflora and the host in toxicology, Toxicol. Pathol., 16, 147-153, 1988. 4. Cummings, J. H., Macfarlane, G. T., Colonic microflora nutrition and health,...

Roberfroid M 1983 A Review Comparing

M., Old thought and new work on breads white and brown, Lancet, 2, 205-210, 1955. 2. Slavin, J., Dietary fibre and non-digestible oligosaccharides, in Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition, and Health, Gibson, G. R., Roberfroid, M. B., Eds., Kluwer Acadamic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 125-147, 1999. 3. Hispley, E. H., Dietary fibre and pregnancy toxaemia, Br. Med. J., 2, 420-422, 1953. 4. Burkitt, D. P., Walker, A. R. P., Painter, N. S., Effect of dietary fibre on...

Effects of Inulin Type Fructans on Risk of Colon Cancer

Cancer is a generic term for malignant neoplasia, a large group of diseases arising in practically all tissues composed of potentially dividing cells. Initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis are the key steps in cancer development and they are multifactorial. Especially, several factors of environmental and genetic origin have been identified that affect cancer incidence. The most important environmental contributors are believed to be the diet that may contribute to some 35 of all...

Inulin Origin Chemistry Biochemistry and Technological Properties

3.1.2 Chemistry of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Fructans 3.1.3 Biochemistry The Biosynthetic Pathways of Fructans 3.1.4 Natural Occurrence of Fructans 3.1.4.1 Occurrence of Fructans in Plants 3.1.4.2 Occurrence of Fructans in Fungi 3.1.4.3 Occurrence of Fructans in Bacteria 3.2.2 Chemistry and Biochemistry of Inulin 3.2.3 Distribution of Inulin in Plants 3.2.4 Biological Functions of Inulin in Plants 3.3.1 Description of Chicory Inulin 3.3.3 Industrial Production of Inulin and Oligofructose and...

Inulin And Oligofructose As Dietary Fiber

6.2.1 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Concept of Dietary Fiber As discussed above, the five basic attributes of a dietary fiber are It is a component of an edible plant cell. It is a carbohydrate both oligosaccharides and polysaccharides . It resists hydrolysis by human mammal alimentary enzymes. It is resistant to absorption in the small intestine. It undergoes hydrolysis and fermentation partial or total by the bacteria in the large bowel. The question now is Do inulin and oligofructose...

Main Substrates of Bacterial Fermentation in the Large Bowel

Nonstarch polysaccharides NSPs Nondigestible oligosaccharides NDOs Sugars e.g., lactose, raffinose, stachyose, etc., Polyols Nondigestible dietary proteins and peptides Endogens compounds Proteins and peptides e.g., pancreatic enzymes Mucins many different substrates as well as intermediate or even end metabolic products, and they interact with each other to form trophic chains.14

Info

G., de Wit, D., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., The interaction of inulin oligosaccharides with Ba2 studied by 1H NMR Spectroscopy, J. Carbohydr. Chem, 2, 213-230, 1997. Delzenne, N., Roberfroid, M. B., Physiological effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides, Lebensmitt. Wissensch. Technol., 27, 1-6, 1994. Roberfroid, M. B., Slavin, J., Nondigestible oligosaccharides, Critic. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 40, 461-480, 2000. Franck, A., Technological functionality of inulin and...