Navigation in Laparoscopic Surgery

Our development navigation system, shown in Figure 12-2A, comprises a position tracker (Polaris®, NDI, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), a desktop computer and the laparoscopic navigation pointer (LNP) with an attached tracking device on the shaft (Figure 12-2B). The pointer is approximately 40 cm long, i.e., approximately the same size as any other laparoscopic instrument. Furthermore, the pointer is normally used in combination with a Doppler device (SonoDoppler®, MISON, Trondheim, Norway) shown in Figure 12-2C. This Doppler device is a sheath with a 5 mm inner and 8 mm outer diameter and with an ultrasound transducer element at the tip for measuring Doppler shifts, i.e., blood flow. The Doppler device provides the surgeon with audio feedback on the blood flow as well as details on distance to the blood vessel in front of the instrument. The combined LNP and Doppler device (Figure 12-2D) comprise an advanced instrument for visualization control and blood vessel detection in laparoscopic surgery in the retroperitoneum.

Figure 12-2 A) Photo shows development navigation system rack with optical tracking system cameras (Polaris®, NDI, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and a desktop computer. B) Laparoscopic navigation pointer (LNP) with a position-tracking device attached. C) Doppler device (SonoDoppler® MISON, Trondheim, Norway) in combination with a laparoscopic instrument. D) Intraoperative use of the LNP in combination with the Doppler device. The LNP controls visualization of 3D medical images on the navigation monitor based on position and orientation measurements of the attached tracking device, while the Doppler device provides detailed and real-time feedback on blood flow.

Figure 12-2 A) Photo shows development navigation system rack with optical tracking system cameras (Polaris®, NDI, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada) and a desktop computer. B) Laparoscopic navigation pointer (LNP) with a position-tracking device attached. C) Doppler device (SonoDoppler® MISON, Trondheim, Norway) in combination with a laparoscopic instrument. D) Intraoperative use of the LNP in combination with the Doppler device. The LNP controls visualization of 3D medical images on the navigation monitor based on position and orientation measurements of the attached tracking device, while the Doppler device provides detailed and real-time feedback on blood flow.

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