A Cured Meat Guide for Everyone
Multiple dietary and environmental exposures have been linked to the development of this tumors (3,4). Evidence suggests that consumption of salted fish is a contributing factor (4,106,107). Carcinogenic compounds such as nitrosamine have been identified in salted fish and in food products consumed by other high-risk populations such as Tunisian stews and pepper mixtures (108). In addition to dietary and environmental components that could affect cellular expression or EBV infection, genetic differences may exist in the high-risk populations. The putative genetic changes could work in concert with the viral oncogenic proteins to induce cancer.
In addition to ruminant species, L. monocytogenes also can be isolated from a number of nonruminant species and nonruminant agricultural environments. For example, L. monocytogenes has been isolated from the feces of wild birds (Fenlon 1985), horses (Weber et al. 1995 Gudmundsdottir et al. 2004), swine (Hayashidani et al. 2002 Yokoyama et al. 2005), poultry (Weber et al. 1995), and other domestic animals (Weber et al. 1995), as well as from eviscerated farmed fish (Miettinen and Wirtanen 2005). While L. monocytogenes in ruminants and on ruminant farms are more likely to contribute directly to human disease, i.e., through human consumption of raw milk (Ryser 1999), the presence of L. monocytogenes in other food animals is more likely to contribute indirectly to food contamination and human disease, e.g., by facilitating introduction of this pathogen into food processing plants or onto vegetables through contaminated manure (e.g., Fenlon et al. 1996 Rorvik et al. 2003). One example of...
The effect of information and product samples on consumer attitudes was documented in a Purdue University study (Pohlman et al., 1994). About half of the sample of 178 residents was willing to buy irradiated foods based upon previous exposure to information about the process. After viewing an eight-minute videotape, The Future of Food Preservation, Food Irradiation, subjects demonstrated a significant positive change in knowledge, and willingness to buy irradiated food increased to 90 . Among those who saw the videotape and sampled irradiated strawberries, willingness to buy increased to 99 . These results cannot be generalized to the entire population, since a university community may have a disproportional number of people with more formal education nevertheless, this study demonstrates high acceptance among specific segments of the population. The military is considering irradiation to improve the quality of dining hall and field rations. The Future of Food Preservation, Food...
With the exception of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus, relatively little is known about the susceptibility of any of the vibrios to various food-preservation methods (261). It is thought that the prevention of seafoodborne disease caused by V. vulnificus cannot be accomplished by reliance on a single control measure. Prevention requires knowledge about the foods serving as vehicles of transmission, food-handling errors associated with the processing of these foods that increase the risk of infection, ecology of the organism in the environment and seafood hosts, factors that place
A relatively small number of human listeriosis cases have been associated with food products contaminated during primary production in agricultural environments, such as raw vegetables, raw milk, and raw milk dairy products, since heating regimes typically applied during food cooking or commercial processing effectively inactivate L. monocytogenes. Instead, most human listeriosis cases are caused by the consumption of RTE meats and dairy food products that contain L. monocytogenes as a consequence of contamination from environmental sources in processing plants and other food-associated environments (e.g., retail food businesses) (Tompkin 2002 Reij and Den Aantrekker 2004) and that are not thoroughly reheated immediately prior to consumption. Foods at particular risk for transmission of this pathogen include RTE foods that are not aseptically packaged after processing and that require refrigerated storage. L. monocytogenes prevalences in these products have been reported at 5 and...
In arctic, northwestern, and interior Alaska, this member of the Salmonidae family is an important year-round source of fresh and dried fish for subsistence and personal use, although elsewhere its flesh is not favored for human consumption. Overall, it is not as popular or as desirable as other Pacific salmon. The frequently used name dog salmon reportedly originates with its prevalent use as dog food among aboriginals.
A member of the Acipenseridae family of sturgeon, the lake sturgeon was an important part of aboriginal culture in North America. In some cultures, spring ceremonial festivities were held at lake sturgeon spawning sites. Around 1855, a market for caviar was developed, which in turn spurred a market for smoked fish around 1860. Caviar and smoked meat from lake sturgeon were also important exports to Europe. By 1910, however, lake sturgeon fisheries had been overexploited through the Great Lakes region. Overfishing, the building of dams, habitation alteration, and pollution have since impeded the lake sturgeon's recovery in most areas.
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