The risk of developing urinary tract calculi is 10-100 times greater in patients with IBD than in the general population (Fig. 1) . The reported incidence ranges from 1 to 25%[1-3, 6, 10-12]. The metabolic derangement leading to this complication can be either related to the disease itself or a consequence of its treatment. Patients with CD are much more affected than those with ulcerative colitis (UC) [10,13], and the risk is increased after surgery.
Calculi are primarily composed of calcium oxalate or uric acid. In general, calcium oxalate stones are more frequent in patients who have extensive ileal disease or an ileal resection but who also have a functioning colon [14,15], while uric acid calculi are typical of patients with chronic diarrhoea due to extensive colitis or ileostomy diversion. Because of their different pathogeneses they will be discussed separately.
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