References

1. Steinberg DM (1973) Abscess and fistulae in Crohn disease. Gut 14:865-869

2. Rankin GB (1979) National cooperative Crohn's disease study: extraintestinal manifestations and perianal complications. Gastroenterology 77:914-20

3. Farmer RG (1975) Clinical patterns in Crohn's disease:

a statistical study of 615 patients. Gastroenterology 68:627-635

4. Sachar DB, Bodian CA, Goldstein ES et al (2005) Is perianal Crohn's disease associated with intestinal fis-tulization? Am J Gastroenterol 100(7):1547-1549

5. Bell SJ, Williams AB, Wiesel P, Wilkinson K, Cohen RCG, Kamm MA (2003) The clinical course of fistulat-ing Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17:1145-1151

6. Schwartz DA (2002) The Natural history of fistulizing Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gas-troenterology 122:875-880

7. Gray BK, Lockhartmummery HE, Morson BC (1965) Crohn's disease of the anal region. Gut 6:515-524

8. Hellers G, Bergstrand O, Ewerth S, Holmstrom B (1980) Occurrence in outcome after primary treatment of anal fistulae in Crohn's disease. Gut 21:525-527

9. Present DH (2000) How to do without steroids in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 6:48-57

10. Judge TA, Lichtenstein GR (2004) Treatment of fis-tulizing Crohn's disease. Gastroenterol Clin N Am 33:421-454

11. Sparberg M, Kirsner JB (1966) Long-term corticosteroid therapy for enteritis: an analysis of 58 courses in 54 patients. Am J Dig Dis 11:865-880

12. Jones JH, Lennard-Jones JF (1966) Corticosteroids and corticotrophin in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Gut 7:181-187

13. Malchow H, Ewe J, Brandes W et al (1984) European cooperative Crohn's disease study (ECCDS): results of drug treatment. Gastroenterology 86:249-266

14. Agrawal A, Durrani S, Leiper K et al (2005) Effect of systemic corticosteroid therapy on risk for intraabdominal or pelvic abscess in non-operated Crohn's disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:1215-1220

15. Present DH (2002) Urinary tract fistulae in Crohn's disease: surgery versus medical therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 97:2165-2167

16. Ursing B, Kamme C (1975) Metronidazole for Crohn's disease. Lancet 1:775-777

17. Bernstein LH, Frank MS, Brandt LJ, Boley SJ (1980) Metronidazole therapy for perineal Crohn's disease with metronidazole. Gastroenterology 79:357-365

18. Brandt LJ, Bernstein LH, Boley SJ, Frank MS (1982) Metronidazole therapy for perineal Crohn's disease: a follow-up study. Gastroenterology 83:383-387

19. Jakobovits J, Schuster MM (1984) Metronidazole therapy for Crohn's disease and associated fistulae. Am J Gastroenterol 79:533-540

20. Schneider MU, Laudage G, Guggenmoos-Holzma I, Riemann JF (1985) Metronidazol in der behandlung des morbus Crohn. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 110:1724-1930

21. Arseneau KO, Cohn SM, Cominelli F, Connors AF Jr (2001) Cost-utility of initial medical management for Crohn's disease perianal fistulae. Gastroenterology 120:1640-1656

22. Duffy LF, Daum F, Fisher SE et al (1985) Peripheral neuropathy in Crohn's disease patients treated with metronidazole. Gastroenterology 88:681-684

23. Turunen U, Farkkila M, Seppala K (1989) Long-term treatment of peri-anal or fistulous Crohn's disease with ciprofloxacin. Scan J Gastroenterol 24:144-148

24. Solomon M, McLeod R, O'Connor B et al (1993) Combination ciprofloxacin and medronidazole in severe perianal Crohn's disease. Can J Gastroenterol 7:571-573

25. Present DH, Korelitz BI, Wisch N et al (1980) Treatment of Crohn's disease with 6-mercaptopurine: a long-term, randomized, double-blind study. N Engl J Med 302:981-987

26. Korelitz BI, Present DH (1985) Favorable effect of 6-mercaptopurine on fistulae of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 30:58-64

27. Pearson DC, May GR, Fick GH, Sutherland LR (1995) Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 123:132-142

28. Cuffari C, Hunt S, Bayless T (2001) Utilization of 6-thioguanine metabolite levels to optimise azathioprine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 48:642-646

29. Present DH, Meltzer SJ, Krumholtz MP et al (1989) 6-mercaptopurine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease: short and long-term toxicity. Ann Intern Med 111:641-649

30. Mahadevan U, Marion JF, Present DH (2003) Fistula response to methotrexate in Crohn's disease: a case series. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:1003-1008

31. Vandeputte L, D'Haens G, Baert F, Rutgeerts P (1999) Methotrexate in refractory Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 5:11-15

32. Lemann M, Zenjari T, Bouhnik Y et al (2000) Methotrexate in Crohn's disease: long-term efficacy and toxicity. Am J Gastroenterol 95:1730-1734

33. Te HS, Schiano TD, Kuan SF et al (2000) Hepatic effect of long-term methotrexate use in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 95:3150-3156

34. Fukushima T, Sugita A, Masuzawa S et al (1989) Effects of cyclosporine A on active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterol JPN 24:12-15

35. Lichtiger S (1990) Cyclosporine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: open-label experience. Mt Sinai J Med 57:315-319

36. Hanauer SB, Smith MB (1993) Rapid closure of Crohn's disease fistulae with continuous intravenous cyclosporine A. Am J Gastroenterol 88:646-649

37. Present DH, Lichtiger S (1994) Efficacy of cyclosporine in treatment of fistula of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 39:374-380

38. Markowitz J, Rosa J, Grancher K et al (1990) Long-term 6-mercaptopurine treatment in adolescents with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 99:1347-1351

39. Abreu-Martin M, Vasiliauskas E, Gaiennie J (1996) Continuous infusion cyclosporine is effective for severe acute Crohn's disease: but for how long? Gastroenterology 110:A851

40. O'Neill J, Pathhmakanthan S, Goh J (1997) Cyclosporine A induces remission in fistulous Crohn's disease but relapse occurs upon cessation of treatment. Gastroenterology 112:A1056

41. Hinterleitner TA, Petritsch W, Aichbichler B et al (1997) Combination of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone for perianal fistulae in Crohn's disease. Z Gastroenterol 35:603-608

42. Egan LJ, Sandborn WJ, Tremaine WJ (1998) Clinical outcome following treatment of refractory inflammatory and fistulizing Crohn's disease with intravenous cyclosporine. Am J Gastroenterol 93:442-448

43. Gurudu SR, Griffel LH, Gialanella RJ, Das KM (1999) Cyclosporine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: short-term and long-term results. J Clin Gastroenterol 29:151-154

44. Hinterleitner TA, Petritsch W, Aichbichler B, Fickert P, ranner G, Krejs GJ (1997) Combination of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone for perianal fistulae in Crohn's disease. Z Gastroenterol 35:603-608

45. Sandborn W (1995) A critical review of cyclosporine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 1:48-63

46. Lowry PW, Weaver AL, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ (1999) Combination therapy with oral tacrolimus (FK506) and azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine for treatment-refractory Crohn's disease perianal fistulae. Inflamm Bowel Dis 5:239-245

47. Sandborn WJ (1997) Preliminary report on the use of oral tacrolimus (FK506) in the treatment of complicated proximal small bowel and fistulizing Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 92:876-879

48. Fellermman K, Ludwig D, Stahl M et al (1998) Steroid-unresponsive acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease: immunomodulation by tacrolimus (FK506). Am J Gastroenterol 93:1860-1866

49. Sandborn WJ, Present DH, Isaacs KL et al (2003) Tacrolimus for the treatment of fistulae with Crohn's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Gas-troenterology 126:942-943

50. Gonzalez-Lama Y, Abreu L, Vera MI et al (2005) Long-term tacrolimus therapy in refractory to infliximab fis-tulizing Crohn's disease: a pilot study. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11:8-15

51. Neurath MF, Wanitschke R, Peters M et al (1999) Randomized trial of mycophenolate mofetil versus aza-thioprine for treatment of chronic active Crohn's disease. Gut 44:625-628

52. Fickert P, Hinterleitner TA, Wenzl HH et al (1998) Mycophenolate mofetil in patients with Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 93:2529-2532

53. Miehsler W, Reinisch W, Moser G et al (2001) Is mycophenolate mofetil an effective alternative in aza-thioprine-intolerant patients with active Crohn's disease? Am J Gastroenterol 96:782-787

54. Fellermann K, Steffen M, Steinn J et al (2000) Mycophenolate mofetil: lack of efficacy in chronic active inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14:171-176

55. Wenzl HH, Hinterleitneir TA, Aichbichler BW et al

(2005) Mycophenolate mofetil for Crohn's disease: short-term efficacy and long-term outcome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 19:427-434

56. Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targann S et al (1999) Inflix-imab for the treatment of fistulae in patients with Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 340:1398-1405

57. Hanauer SB, Feagan BG, Lichtenstein GR et al (2002) Maintenance infliximab for Crohn's disease: the ACCENT I randomised trial. Lancet 359:1541-1549

58. Sands E, Anderson FH, Bernstein CN, Chey WY et al (2004) Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease. N Eng J Med 350:876-885

59. Hanauer SB (2005) Infliximab: lifetime use for maintenance is appropriate in Chron's disease. CON: "lifetime use" is an awfully long time. Am J Gastroenterol 100:1435-1437

60. Rutgeerts P, Feagna BG, Lichtenstein GR et al (2004) Comparison of scheduled and episodic treatment strategies of infliximab in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 126:598-601

61. Lichtenstein GR (2005) Infliximab: lifetime use for maintenance is appropriate in Crohn's disease. Pro: maintenance therapy is superior to episodic therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 100:1433-1435

62. Poritz LS, Rowe WA, Koltun WA (2002) Remicade does not abolish the need for surgery in fistulizing Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum 45:771-775

63. Arseneau KO, Cohn SM, Cominelli F, Connors AF Jr (2001) Cost-utility of initial medical management for Crohn's disease perianal fistulae. Gastroenterology 120:1640-1656

64. Lichtenstein GR, Yan S, Bala M et al (2005) Infliximab maintenance treatment reduces hospitalizations, surgeries, and procedures in fistulizing Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 128:862-869

65. Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Hanauer SB et al (2001) An engineered human antibody to TNF (CDP571) for active Crohn's disease: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 120:1330-1338

66. Eherenpreis ED, Kane SV, Cohen LB et al (1999) Thalidomide therapy for patients with refractory Crohn's disease: an open-label trial. Gastroenterology 117:1271 -1277

67. Vasiliauskas EA, Kam Ly, Abreu-Martin MT et al (1999) An open-label pilot study of low-dose thalidomide in chronically active, steroid-dependent Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 117:1278-1287

68. Present DH (2003) Crohn's fistula: current concepts in management. Gastroenterology 124:1629-1635

69. Calam J, Crooks PE, Walker rJ (1980) Elemental diets in the management of Crohn's perianal fistulae. JPEN 4:4-8

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Naturally Cure Erectile Dysfunction

Naturally Cure Erectile Dysfunction

Whether we like it or not, for many men it gets increasingly difficult to perform sexually as the years advance.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment