References

1. Loftus EV Jr (2004) Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 126:1504-1517

2. Longobardi T, Jacobs T, Wu L et al (2003) Work losses related to inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: results from a national population health survey. Am J Gastroenterology 98:844-849

3. Card T, Hubbard R, Logan RFA (2003) Mortality in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology 125:1583-1590

4. Carter MJ, Lobo AJ Travis SPL (2004) Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 53:v1-v16

5. Sutherland LR, May GR, Shaffer EA (1993) Sulfasalazine revisited: a meta-analysis of 5-aminosali-cylic acid in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med 118:540-549

6. Sutherland L, Roth D, Beck P et al (2000) Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid for inducing remission in ulcera-tive colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000543

7. Hanauer S, Schwartz J, Robinson M et al (1993) Mesalamine capsules for treatment of active ulcerative colitis: results of a controlled trial: Pentasa Study Group. Am J Gastroenterol 88:1188-1197

8. Green JR, Lobo AJ, Holdsworth CD et al (1998) Bal-salazide is more effective and better tolerated than mesalamine in the treatment of acute ulcerative colitis: The Abacus Investigator Group. Gastroenterology 114:15-22

9. Kruis W, Brandes JW, Schreiber S et al (1998) Olsalazine versus mesalazine in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 12:707-715

10. Miner P, Hanauer S, Robinson M et al (1995) Safety and efficacy of controlled-release mesalamine for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis: Pentasa UC Maintenance Study Group. Dig Dis Sci 40:296-304

11. Hawkey CJ, Dube LM, Rountree LV et al (1997) A trial of zileuton versus mesalazine or placebo in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis: The European Zileuton Study Group For Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 112:718-724

12. Sandberg-Gertzen H, Jarnerot G, Kraaz W(1986) Azodisal sodium in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a study of tolerance and relapse-prevention properties. Gastroenterology 90:1024-1030

13. Wright JP, O'Keefe EA, Cuming L, Jaskiewicz K(1993) Olsalazine in maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci 38:1837-1842

14. Hanauer S, Sninsky C, Robinson M et al (1996) An oral preparation of mesalamine as longterm maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 124:204-211

15. Ardizzone S, Petrillo M, Imbesi V et al (1999) Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13:373-379

16. Miner P, Hanauer S, Robinson M et al (1995) Safety and efficacy of controlled-release mesalamine for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis: Pentasa UC Maintenance Study Group. Dig Dis Sci 40:296-304

17. Ngo Y, Gelinet JM, Ivanovic A et al (1992) Efficacy of a daily application of mesalazine (Pentasa) suppository with progressive release, in the treatment of ulcerative proctitis: a double-blind versus placebo randomized trial [In French]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 16:782-786

18. Williams CN, Haber G, Aquino JA (1987) Doubleblind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using 99mTc labeled 5-ASA suppositories. Dig Dis Sci 32:71S-75S

19. Campieri M, De Franchis R, Bianchi Porro G et al (1990) Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) suppositories in the treatment of ulcerative proctitis or distal proctosigmoiditis: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 25:663-668

20. Campieri M, Gionchetti P, Belluzzi A et al (1990) Topical treatment with 5-aminosalicylic in distal ulcera-tive colitis by using a new suppository preparation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Int J Colorectal Dis 5:79-81

21. Campieri M, Gionchetti P, Belluzzi A et al (1991) Optimum dosage of 5-aminosalicylic acid as rectal enemas in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Gut 32:929-931

22. Sutherland LR, Martin F, Greer S et al (1987) 5-Aminosalicylic acid enema in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, proctosigmoiditis, and proctitis. Gastroenterology 92:1894-1898

23. Campieri M, Gionchetti P, Belluzzi A (1990) Sucral-fate, 5-aminosalicylic acid, and placebo enemas in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroen-terol Hepatol 3:41-44

24. Hanauer SB (1998) Dose-ranging study of mesalamine (PENTASA) enemas in the treatment of acute ulcera-tive proctosigmoiditis: results of a multicentered placebo-controlled trial: The US Pentasa Enema Study Group. Inflamm Bowel Dis 4:79-83

25. Marshall JK, Irvine EJ (1995) Rectal aminosalicylate therapy for distal ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 9:293-300

26. Cohen RD, Woseth DM, Thisted RA, Hanauer SB (2000) A meta-analysis and overview of the literature on treatment options for left-sided ulcerative colitis and ulcerative proctitis. Am J Gastroenterology 95:1263-1276

27. Kam L, Cohen H, Dooley C et al (1996) A comparison of mesalamine suspension enema and oral sulfasalazine for treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol 91:1338-1342

28. Reddy SI, Friedmanm S, Telford JJ et al (2005) Are patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving optimal care? Am J Gastroenterol 100:1357-1361

29. Sachar DB (2003) Ten common errors in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 9:205-209

30. Loftus EV, Kane SV, Bjorkman D (2004) Systemic review: short-term adverse effects of 5-aminosalicylic acid agents in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 19:179-189

31. Ransford RAJ, Langman MJS (2002) Sulphasalazine and mesalazine: serious adverse reactions re-evaluated on the basis of suspected adverse reaction reports to the Committee on Safety of Medicines. Gut 51:536-539

32. Van Staa TP, Travis SPL, Leufkens HJM et al (2004) 5-aminosalicylic acids and the risk of renal disease: a large British epidemiological study. Gastroenterology 126:1733-1739

33. Rosenberg JL, Wall AJ, Levin B et al (1975) A controlled trial of azathioprine in the management of chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 69:96-99

34. Kirk AP, Lennard-Jones JE (1982) Controlled trial of azathioprine in chronic ulcerative colitis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 284:1291-1292

35. Fraser AG, Orchard TR, Jewell DP (2002) The efficacy of azathioprine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a 30 year review. Gut 50:485-489

36. Ardizzone S, Maconi G, Russo A et al (2006) Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine and 5-aminosalicylic acid for treatment of steroid dependent ulcerative colitis. Gut 55:47-53

37. Mantzaris GJ, Archavlis E, Kourtessas D et al (2001) Oral azathioprine for steroid refractory severe ulcera-tive colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 96:2797-2808

38. Ardizzone S, Molteni F, Imbesi V et al (1997) Azathioprine in steroid resistant and steroid dependant ulcer-ative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 25:330-333

39. Lennard L, Gibson BE, Nicole T (1993) Congenital thiopurine methyltransferase deficiency and 6-mer-captopurine toxicity during treatment for acute lym-phoblastic leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 69:577-579

40. Colombel JF, Ferrari N, Debuysere H et al (2000) Genotypic analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase in patients with Crohn's disease and severe myelosup-pression during azathioprine therapy. Gastroenterolo-gy 118:1025-1030

41. Sandborn WJ, Tremaine WJ, Wolf DC et al (1999) Lack of effect of intravenous administration on time to respond to azathioprine for steroid-treated Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 117:527-535

42. The mycophenolate mofetil refractory rejection study group (1996) Mycophenolate mofetil for the treatment of refractory acute, cellular renal transplantation rejection. Transplantation 61:722-729

43. Farell RJ, Ang Y, Kileen P et al (2000) Increased incidence of non Hodgkin's lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients on immunosuppressive therapy but overall risk is low. Gut 47:514-519

44. Connel WR, Kamm MA, Dickson MB et al (1994) Long-term neoplasia risk after azathioprine treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. Lancet 343:1249-1252

45. - (2005) Increased risk of lymphoma among inflam-

matory bowel disease patients treated with azathio-prine and 6-mercaptopurine Gut 54:1121-1125

46. Fraser Ag, Jewell DP (2000) Long-term risk of malignancy after treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with azathioprine: a 30 years study. Gastroenterology 118:A1471

47. Lewis JD, Bilker WB, Brensinger C et al (2001) Inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with an increased risk of lymphoma. Gastroenterology 121:1080-1087

48. Francella A, Dyan A, Bodian C et al (2003) The safety of 6 mercaptopurine for childbearing patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study. Gastroenterology 124:9-17

49. Stange EF, Neurath MF (1996) Methotrexate in chronic active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, randomized, Israeli multicenter trial. Gastroenterology 110:1416-1421

50. Mate-Jimenez J, Hermida C, Cantero-Perona J, Moreno Otero R (2000) 6-mercaptopurine or methotrexate added to prednisone induces and maintains remission in steroid-dependent inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:1227-1233

51. Morton D, McGovern D, Jewell DP (2002) The efficacy of methotrexate for maintaining remission in inflammatory bowel disease Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:693-697

52. Te HS, Schiano TD, Kuan SF et al (2000) Hepatic effects of long-term methotrexate use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 95:3150-3156

53. Lichtiger S, Present DH, Kornbluth A et al (1994) Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. N Engl J of Med 330:1841-1845

54. D'Heans G, Lemmens L, Geboes K et al (2001) Intravenous cyclosporine versus intravenous corticos-teroids as single therapy for severe attacks of ulcera-tive colitis. Gastroenterology 120:1323-1329

55. Svanoni F, Bonassi U, Bagnolo F et al (1998) Effectiveness of cyclosporine A (CsA) in the treatment of active refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Gastroenterology 114:A1096

56. Van Assche G, D'Haens G, Noman M et al (2003) Randomized, double-blind comparison of 4 mg/kg versus 2 mg/kg intravenous cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 125:1025-1031

57. Sandborn WJ, Tremaine WJ, Schroeder KW et al (1994) A placebo-controlled trial of cyclosporine enemas for mildly-moderate active left-sided ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 106:1429-1435

58. Travis SP, Farrant JM, Ricketts C et al (1996) Predicting outcome in ulcerative colitis. Gut 38:905-910

59. Lindgren SC, Flood LM, Kilander AF et al (1998) Early predictors of glucocorticoids treatment failure in severe and moderately severe attacks of ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:831-835

60. Schibolet O, Regushevskaya E, Brezis M, Soares-Weise K (2005) Cyclosporin A for induction of remission in severe ulcerative colitis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Review Issue 4

61. Sternthal M, George J, Kornbluth A et al (1996) Toxic-ity associated with the use of cyclosporine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 110:A1019

62. De Groen PC, Aksamit AJ, Rakela J et al (1987) Central nervous system toxicity after liver transplantation: the role of cyclosporine and cholesterol. N Engl J Med 317:861-866

63. Fellermann K, Ludwig D, Stahl M et al (1998) Steroid-unresponsive acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease: immunomodulation by tacrolimus (FK506). Am J Gastroenterol 93:1860-1866

64. Baumgart DC, Wiedenmann B, Dignass AU (2003) Rescue therapy with tacrolimus is effective in patients with severe and refractory inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:1273-1281

65. Hogenauer C, Wenzl HH, Hinterleitner TA, Petritsch W (2003) Effect of oral tacrolimus on steroid-refractory moderate/severe ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:415-423

66. Actis GC, Bruno M, Pinna-Pintor M, Rossini FP, Rizzetto M (2002) Infliximab for treatment of steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. Dig Liver Dis 34:631-634

67. Gornet Jm, Couve S, Hassani Z et al (2003) Infliximab for refractory ulcerative colitis or indeterminate coli-tis:an open-label multicentre study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:175-181

68. Jarnerot G, Hertevig E, Friis-Liby I et al (2005) Inflix-imab as a rescue therapy in severe to moderately severe ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 128:1805-1811

69. Rutgeerts P, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG et al (2005) Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 353:2462-2476

70. Musch E, Andus T, Malek M (2002) Induction and maintenance of clinical remission by interferon-beta in patients with steroid-refractory active ulcerative colitis: an open long-term pilot trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1233-1239

71. Nikolaus S, Rutgeerts P, Fedorak R (2003) Interferon b-1a in ulcerative colitis: a placebo-controlled, randomised, dose escalating study. Gut 52:1286-1290

72. Musch E, Andus T, Kruis W et al (2005) Interferon beta-1a for the treatment of steroid refractory ulcera-tive-colitis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:581-586

73. Feagan BG, Greenberg GR, Wild G et al (2005) Treatment of ulcerative colitis with a humanized antibody to the a4b7 integrin. N Engl J Med 352:2499-2507

74. Danese S, De La Rue SA, Gasbarrini A (2005) Antibody to the a4ß7 integrin. N Engl J Med 353:1180

75. Kondo K, Shinoda T, Yoshimoto H (2001) Effective maintenance leukocytapheresis for patients with steroid dependent or resistant ulcerative colitis. Ther Apher 5:462-465

76. Sakata H, Kawamura N, Takashi H et al (2003) Successful treatment of ulcerative colitis with leukocyta-pheresis using non-woven polyester filter. Ther Apher Dial 7:536-539

77. Kanke K, Nakano M, Hiraishi H, Terano A (2004) Clinical evaluation of granulocyte/monocyte apheresis therapy for active ulcerative colitis. Dig Liver Dis 36:811-817

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Mole Removal

Mole Removal

Moles, warts, and other unsightly irregularities of the skin can be bothersome and even embarrassing. They can be removed naturally... Removing Warts and Moles Naturally! If you have moles, warts, and other skin irregularities that you cannot cover up affecting the way you look, you can have them removed. Doctors can be extremely expensive. Learn the natural ways you can remove these irregularities in the comfort of your own home.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment