References

1. Stewenius J, Adnerhill I, Ekelund GR et al (1996) Operations in unselected patients with ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis: a long term follow-up study. Eur J Surg 162:131

2. Robert JH, Sachar DB, Aufses AH Jr et al (1990) Management of severe hemorrhage in ulcerative colitis. Am J Surg 159:550

3. Mallant-Hent RCh, van Bodegraven AA, Meuwissen SG, Manoliu RA (2003) Alternative approach to massive gastrointestinal bleeding in ulcerative colitis: highly selective transcatheter embolisation. Eur J Gas-

troenterol Hepatol 15(2): 189-193

4. Pesce G, Ceccarino R (1991) Treatment of severe hemorrhage from a defunctionalized rectum with adrenaline chloride in ulcerative colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 34:1139

5. Michelassi F, Finco C (1995) Indications for surgery in inflammatory bowel disease: the surgeon's perspective. In: Kirsner JB, Shorter RG (eds) Inflammatory bowel disease, 4th edn. Williams, Baltimore, pp 771-783

6. Truelove SC, Witts LJ (1995) Cortisone in ulcerative colitis: final report on a therapeutic trial. BMJ 2:1041

7. Travis SPL, Farrant JM, Ricketts C et al (1996) Predicting outcome in severe colitis. Gut 38:905

8. Fazio VW (1980) Toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis. Gastroenterol 9:389-407

9. Lichtiger S, Present DH, Kornbluth A et al (1994) Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. N Engl J Med 330:1841

10. Marion JF, Present DH (1997) The modern medical management of acute, severe ulcerative colitis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 9:831-835

11. Daperno M, Sostegni R, Scaglione N et al (2004) Outcome of a conservative approach in severe ulcerative colitis. Dig Liver Dis 36:4-6

12. Rayner CK, McCormack G, Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA (2003) Long-term results of low-dose intravenous ciclosporin for acute severe ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18:303-308

13. D'Haens G, Lemmens L, Geboes K et al (2001) Intravenous cyclosporine versus intravenous corticos-teroids as single therapy for severe attacks of ulcera-tive colitis. Gastroenterology 120:1323-1329

14. Kohn A, Prantera C, Pera A, Cosintino R et al (2002) Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (infliximab) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis: result of an open study on 13 patients. Dig Liver Dis 34:626-630

15. Lam EC, Bailey RJ (2003) Infliximab salvage therapy after cyclosporine in an acute flare of chronic ulcera-tive colitis. Can J Gastroenterol 17:198-200

16. Ljung T, Karlen P, Schmidt D et al (2004) Infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease: clinical outcome in a population based cohort from Stockholm County. Gut 53:849-853

17. Bell RL, Seymour NE (2002) Laparoscopic treatment of fulminant ulcerative colitis. Surg Endosc 16:1778-1782

18. Marohn MR, Hanly EJ, McKenna KJ, Varin CR (2005) Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy in the acute setting. Gastrointest Surg 9:881-886

19. Sachar DB (2000) Indications for surgery in inflammatory bowel disease: a gastroenterologist's opinion. In: Kirsner JB (ed) Inflammatory bowel disease, vol 4. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 611-615

20. Grieco MB, Bordan DL, Geiss AC et al (1980) Toxic megacolon complicating Crohn's colitis. Ann Surg 191:75-80

21. Latella G, Vernia P, Viscido A et al (2002) GI distension in severe ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 97:169-175

22. Goligher JC, Hoffman DC, DeDombal FT et al (1970) Surgical treatment of severe attacks of ulcerative colitis, with special reference to the advantages of early operation. BMJ 4:703-706

23. Amico C, Vitale A, Angriman I et al (2005) Early sur gery for the treatment of toxic megacolon. Digestion 72:146-149

24. Katzka I, Katz S, Morris E (1979) Management of toxic megacolon: the significance of early recognition in medical management. J Clin Gastroenterol 1:307-301

25. Present DH, Wolfson D, Gelernt IM et al (1988) Medical decompression of toxic megacolon by "rolling": a new technique of decompression with favorable long-term follow-up. J Clin Gastroenterol 10:485-490

26. Kuroki K, Masuda A, Uehara H, Kuroki A (1998) A new treatment for toxic megacolon. Lancet 352:782

27. Pascu M, Muller AR, Wiedenmann D, Dignass AU (2003) Rescue therapy with tacrolimus in a patient with toxic megacolon. Int J Colorectal Dis 18:271-275

28. Sawada K, Egashira A, Ohnishi K et al (2005) Leukocy-tapheresis (LCAP) for management of fulminant ulcerative colitis with toxic megacolon. Dig Dis Sci 50:767-773

29. Greenstein AJ, Barth JA, Sachar DB et al (1985) Outcome of toxic dilatation in ulcerative and Crohn's colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 7:137

30. JJ Tjandra (1999) Toxic colitis and perforation. In: Michelassi F Milsom JW (eds) Operative strategies in inflammatory bowel disease. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 234-245

31. Dozois RR, Kelly KA (2000) The surgical management of ulcerative colitis. In: Kirsner JB (ed) Inflammatory bowel disease. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 626-657

32. Jänerot G, Rolny P, Sandberg-Gertzen H ( 1985) Intensive intravenous treatment of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 89:1005

33. Actis GC (2000) Cyclosporin for steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterology 95:830

34. Bousvaros A, Kirschner BS, Werlin SL et al (2000) Oral tacrolimus treatment of severe colitis in children. J Pediatr 137:794-799

35. D'Haens G (2005) Infliximab for ulcerative colitis: finally some answers. Gastroenterology 128:2161-2164

36. Nishioka C, Aoyama N, Maekawa S (2005) Leukocyta-pheresis therapy for steroid-nave patients with active ulcerative colitis: its clinical efficacy and adverse effects compared with those of conventional steroid therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:1567-1571

37. Britton A, Peppercorn MA (1995) Emergencies in inflamatory bowel diseases. Crit Care Clin 11:513-529

38. Choi PM, Zelig MP (1994) Similarity of colorectal cancer in CD and UC: implications for carcinogenesis and prevention. Gut 35:950-954

39. Ransohoff D (1988) Colon cancer in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 94:1089

40. Eaden JA, Abrams KR, Mayberry JF (2001) The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta analysis. Gut 48:526-535

41. Ekborn A, Helmick C, Zack M, Adami HO (1990) Ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer: a population-based study. N Engl J Med 323:1228-1233

42. Riddell RH, Goldman H, Ransohoff DF et al (1983) Dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: standardised classification with provisional clinical applications. Hum Pathol 14:931-968

43. Rosenstock E, Farmer RG, Petras R et al (1990) Surveillance for colonic carcinoma in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 89:1342-1346

44. Lofberg R, Brostrom O, Karlen P et al (1990) Colonoscopic surveillance in long-standing total ulcerative colitis: a 15-year follow-up study. Gastroenterology 99:1021-1031

45. Ransohoff Df, Riddell RH, Levin B (1985) Ulcerative colitis and colonic cancer: Problems in assessing the diagnostic usefulness of mucosal dysplasia. Dis Colon Rectum 28:383

46. Melville DMN, Jass JR, Morson BC et al (1998) Observer study on the grading of dysplasia in ulcerative colitis: comparison with clinical outcome. Hum Pathol 20:1990

47. Lim CH, Dixon MF, Vail A et al (2003) Ten year follow up of ulcerative colitis patients with and without low-grade dysplasia. Gut 52:127-113

48. Befrits R, Ljung T, Jaramillo E, Rubio C (2002) Low-grade dysplasia in extensive, long-standing inflammatory bowel disease: a follow-up study. Dis Colon Rectum 45:615-620

49. Ulman TA, Loftus VE, Kakar S et al (2002) The fate of low-grade dysplasia in ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 97:922-927

50. Bernstein CN, Shanahan F, Weinstein WM (1994) Are we telling patients the truth about surveillance colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis? Lancet 8:71-74

51. Ullman TA (2003) Patients with low-grade dysplasia should be advised to undergo colectomy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 9:267-269

52. Ullman T, Croog V, Harpaz N et al (2003) Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 125:1311-1319

53. Blackstone MO, Riddel RH, Rogers BH, Levin B (1981) Dysplasia associated lession or mass (DALM) detected by colonoscopy in long-standing ulcerative colitis: an indication for colectomy. Gastroenterology 80:366-374

54. Connel WR, Lennard-Jones JE, Williams CB et al (1994) Factors affecting the outcome of endoscopic surveillance for cancer in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 107:934-944

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment