References

Smoke Free In One Hour

The Painless Stop Smoking Cure

Get Instant Access

1. Langholz E, Munkholm P, Nielsen OH et al (1991) Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen county from 1962 to 1987. Scand J Gastroenterol 26:1247-1256

2. Munkholm P, Langholz E, Nielsen OH et al (1992) Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in Copenhagen county, 1962-1987: a sixfold increase incidence. Scand J Gastroenterol 27:609-614

3. Gower-Rousseau C, Salomez JL, Marti R et al (1994) Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern France. Gut 35:1433-1438

4. Moum B, Vatn MH, Ekbom A et al (1996) Incidence of Crohn's disease in four counties in southeastern Norway, 1990-93: a prospective population study. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:355-361

5. Moum B, Vatn MH, Ekbom A et al (1996) Incidence of ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in four counties of southeastern Norway, 1990-93: a prospective population study. Scand J Gastroenterol 31:362-366

6. Shivanada S, Lennard-Jones J, Logan R et al (1996) Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: Is there a difference between north and south? Results of the European Collaborative Study on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD). Gut 39:690-697

7. Lapidus A, Bernell O, Hellers G et al (1997) Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955-1989. Gut 41:480-486

8. Russel MG, Dorant E, Volovics A et al (1998) High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in The Netherlands: a result of a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum 41:33-40

9. Montgomery SM, Morris DL, Thompson NP et al (1998) Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in British 26 year olds: national longitudinal birth cohort. BMJ 316:1058-1059

10. Yapp TR, Stenson R, Thomas GAO et al (2000) Crohn's disease incidence in Cardiff from 1930: an update for 1991-1995. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:907-911

11. Rubin GP, Hungin APS, Kelly PJ et al (2000) Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology and management in an English general practice population. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14:1553-1559

12. Stowe SP, Redmond SR, Stormont JM et al (1990) An epidemiologic study of inflammatory bowel disease in Rochester, New York: hospital incidence. Gastroen-terology 98:104-110

13. Loftus EV Jr, Silverstein MD, Sandborn WJ et al (1998) Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-1993: incidence, prevalence and survival. Gas-troenterology 114:1161-1168

14. Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Rawstorne P et al (1999) Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 149:916-924

15. Loftus EV Jr, Silverstein MD, Sandborn WJ et al (2000) Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-1993: incidence, prevalence and survival. Gut 46:336-343

16. Vucelic B, Korac B, Sentic M et al (1991) Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: a ten-year prospective study. Int J Epidemiol 20:216-220

17. Vucelic B, Korac B, Sentie M et al (1991) Ulcerative colitis in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: incidence and prevalence 1980-1989. Int J Epidemiol 20:1043-1047

18. Mate-Jimenez J, Munoz S, Vicent D, Pajares JM (1994) Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in urban and rural areas of Spain from 1981 to 1988. J Clin Gastroenterol 18:27-31

19. Fireman Z, Grossman A, Lilos P, Eshchar Y et al (1989) Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970-1980. Am J Gastroenterol 84:255-258

20. Grossman A, Fireman Z, Lilos P et al (1989) Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970-1980. Hepatogastroenterology 36:193-197

21. Morita N, Toki S, Hirohashi T et al (1995) Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: nationwide epidemiological survey during the year 1991. J Gastroenterol 30:1-4

22. Lee YM, Fock KM, See SJ et al (2000) Racial differences in the prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in Singapore. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:622-625

23. Wright JP, Froggat J, O'Keefe EA et al (1986) The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Cape Town 1980-1984. S Afr Med J 70:10-15

24. Linares de la Cal JA, Canton C, Hermida C et al (1999) Estimated incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Argentina and Panama (1987-1993). Rev Esp Enferm Dig 91:277-286

25. Yang SK, Hong WS, Min YI et al (2000) Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Songpa-Kang-dong District, Seoul, Korea, 1986-1997. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:1037-1042

26. Sood A, Midha V, Sood N et al (2003) Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India. Gut 52:1587-1590

27. Tragnone A, Corrao G, Miglio F et al (1996) Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Italy: a nationwide population-based study. Int J Epidemiol 25:1044-1052

28. Ekbom A, Helmick CG, Zack M et al (1992) Survival and causes of death in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study. Gastroen-terology 103:954-960

29. Palli D, Trallori G, Saieva C et al (1998) General and specific mortality of a population based cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 42:175-179

30. Davoli M, Prantera G, Berto E et al (1997) Mortality among patients with ulcerative colitis: Rome 1970-1989. Eur J Epidemiol 13:189-194

31. Cottone M, Magliocco A, Rosselli M et al (1996) Mortality in patients with Crohn's disease. Scand J Gas-troenterol 31:372-375

32. Binder V, Both H, Hansen PK et al (1982) Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962-1978. Gas-troenterology 83:563-568

33. Riegler G, Tartaglione MT, CarratiR et al (2000) Age-related clinical severity at diagnosis in 1705 patients with ulcerative colitis: a study by GISC (Italian Colon-Rectum Study Group). Dig Dis Sci 45:462-465

34. Yang H, Rotter JI (2000) The genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease. Hepatogastroenterology

47:5-14

35. Ahmad T, Satsangi J, McGovern D, Jewell DP (2001) Review article: the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15:731-748

36. Sandler R (1994) Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In: Targan S, Shanahan F (eds) Inflammatory bowel disease: from bench to beside. Williams, Baltimore, MD, USA, pp 5-30

37. Roth MP, Petersen GM, McElree C et al (1989) Geographic origins of Jewish patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 97:900-904

38. Farmer RG, Michener WM, Mortimer EA (1980) Studies of family history among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol 9:271-277

39. Yang H, McElree C, Roth MP et al (1993) Familial empirical risks for inflammatory bowel disease: differences between Jews and non-Jews. Gut 34:517-524

40. Orholm M, Munkolm P, Langholz E et al (1991) Familial occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 324:84-88

41. Satsangi J, Rosenberg WMC, Jewell DP (1994) The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in relatives of patients with Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:413-416

42. Peeters M, Nevens H, Baert F et al (1996) Familial aggregation in Crohn's disease: increased age adjusted risk and concordance in clinical characteristics. Gas-troenterology 111:597-603

43. Tysk C, Lindberg E, Jarnerot G, Floderus-Myrhed B (1988) Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in an unselected population of monozygotic and dizygotic twins: a study of heritability and the influence of smoking. Gut 29:990-996

44. Orholm M, Binder V, Sorensen T, Kyvik K (1996) Inflammatory bowel disease in a Danish twin register. Gut 39:A187

45. Thompson NP, Driscoll R, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ (1996) Genetics versus environment in inflammatory bowel disease: results of a British twin study. BMJ 312:95-96

46. Satsangi J, Parkes M, Jewell DP (1997) The genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: recent progress. In: McLeod RS, Martin F, Sutherland LR et al (eds) Inflammatory bowel diseases. Kluwer, Lancaster, pp 21-28

47. Hugot JP, Laurent-Puig P, Gower-Rousseau C et al (1996) Mapping of a susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease on chromosome 16. Nature 379:821-823

48. Annese V, Latiano A, Bovio P et al (1999) Genetic analysis in Italian families with inflammatory bowel disease supports linkage to the IBD1 locus: a GISC study. Eur J Hum Genet 7:567-573

49. The IBD International Genetics Consortium (2001) International collaboration provides convincing linkage replication in complex disease through analysis of a large pooled data set: Crohn's disease and chromosome 16. Am J Hum Genet 68:1165-1171

50. Hugot JP, Chamaillard M, Zouali H et al (2001) Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411:599-603

51. Ogura Y, Bonen DK, Inohara N et al (2001) A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411:603-606

52. Hampe J, Cuthbert A, Croucher PJP et al (2001) Association between insertion mutation in NOD2 gene and Crohn's disease in German and British populations. Lancet 357:1925-1928

53. Lesage S, Zouali H, Cezard JP et al (2002) Card15/Nod2 mutational analysis and genotype-phenotype correlation in 612 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Hum Genet 70:845-857

54. Cuthbert AP, Fisher SA, Mirza MM et al (2002) The contribution of NOD2 gene mutations to the risk and site of disease of disease in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 122:867-874

55. Radlmar M, Torok HP, Martin K, Folwaczny C (2002) The c-insertion mutation of the NOD2 gene is associated with fistulizing and fibrostenotic phenotypes in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 122:2091-2092

56. Abreu MT, Taylor KD, Lin YC et al (2002) Mutations in NOD2 are associated with fibrostenosing disease in patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 123:679-688

57. Louis E, Hugot JP, Colombel JF et al (2002) NOD2/CARD15 mutations in Crohn's disease are associated with young age at diagnosis and ileal location. Gastroenterology 122:M1405

58. Harries AD, Baird A, Rhodes J (1982) Non-smoking: a feature of ulcerative colitis. BMJ 284:706

59. Sommerville KW, Logan RF, Edmond M, Langman MJ (1984) Smoking and Crohn's disease. BMJ 289:954-956

60. Calkins BM (1989) A meta-analysis of the role of smoking in inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 34:1841-1854

61. Reif S, Lavy A, Keter D et al (2000) Lack of association between smoking and Crohn's disease but the usual association between ulcerative colitis in Jewish patients in Israel: a multicenter study. Am J Gastroen-terol 95:474-478

62. Sandler RS, Sandler DP, McDonnel CW, Wurzelmann JI (1992) Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of ulcerative colitis. Am J Epidemiol 135:603-608

63. Lashner BA, Shaheen NJ, Hanauer SB, Kirschner BS (1993) Passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease in children. Am J Gastroenterol 88:1093-1099

64. Boyko EJ, Perera DR, Koepsell TD et al (1988) Effects of cigarette smoking on the clinical course of ulcera-tive colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 23:1147-1152

65. Rudra T, Motley R, Rhodes J (1989) Does smoking improve colitis? Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 170:61-63

66. Merret MN, Mortensen N, Kettlewell M, Jewell DO (1996) Smoking may prevent pouchitis in patients with restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. Gut 38:362-364

67. van Erpecum KJ, Smits SJ, van de Meeberg PC et al (1996) Risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with non-smoking behaviour. Gastroenterology 110:1503-1506

68. Lindberg E, Jarnerot G, Huitfeldt B (1992) Smoking in Crohn's disease: effect on localisation and clinical course. Gut 33:779-782

69. Russel MG, Volovics A, Schoon EJ et al (1998) Inflammatory bowel disease: Is there any relation between smoking status and disease presentation? Inflamm Bowel Dis 4:182-186

70. Picco MF, Bayless TM (2003) Tobacco consumption and disease duration are associated with fistulizing and stricturing behaviours in the first 8 years of Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 98:363-368

71. Sutherland LR, Ramcharan S, Bryant H, Fick G (1990) Effect of cigarette smoking on recurrence of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 98:1123-1128

72. Cottone M, Rosselli M, Orlando A et al (1994) Smoking habits and recurrence in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 106:643-648

73. Cosnes J, Carbonnel F, Carrat F et al (1999) Effects of current and former cigarette smoking on the clinical course of Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 13:1403-1411

74. Russel MG, Nieman FH, Bergers JM, Stockbrugger RW (1996) Cigarette smoking and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:1075-1081

75. Rutgeerts P, D'Haens G, Hiele M et al (1994) Appendectomy protects against ulcerative colitis. Gastroen-terology 106:1251-1253

76. Parrello T, Pavia M, Angelillo G et al (1997) Appen-dicectomy is an independent protective factor for ulcerative colitis: results of a multicenter case control study. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 29:208-213

77. Andersson RE, Olaison G, Tysk C, Ekbom A (2001) Appendectomy and protection against ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 344:808-814

78. Naganuma M, Iizuka B, Torii A et al (2001) Appendectomy protects against the development of ulcerative colitis and reduces its recurrence: results of a multicenter case-controlled study in Japan. Am J Gastroen-terol 96:1123-1126

79. Cosnes J, Carbonnel F, Beaugerie L et al (2002) Effects of appendicectomy on the course of ulcerative colitis. Gut 51:803-807

80. Andersson RE, Olaison G, Tysk C, Ekbom A (2003) Appendectomy is followed by increased risk of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 124:40-46

81. Riegler G, Caserta L, Esposito I et al (2005) Worse clinical course of disease in Crohn's patients with previous appendectomy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:623-627

82. Katschinski B, Fingerle D, Scherbaum B, Goebell H

(1993) Oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking in Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 38:1596-1600

83. Lashner BA, Kane SV, Hanauer SB (1990) Lack of association between oral contraceptive use and ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 99:1032-1036

84. Godet PG, May GR, Sutherland LR (1995) Meta-analy-sis of the role of oral contraceptive agents in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 37:668-673

85. Boyko EJ, Theis MK, Vaughan TL, Nicol-Blades B

(1994) Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease associated with oral contraceptive use. Am J Epidemiol 140:268-278

86. Corrao G, Tragnone A, Caprilli R et al (1998) Risk of inflammatory bowel disease attributable to smoking, oral contraception and breastfeeding in Italy: a nationwide case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 27:397-404

87. Wakefield AJ, Sawyerr AM, Hudson M et al (1991) Smoking, the oral contraceptive pill and Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 36:1147-1150

88. Riordan AM, Ruxton CH, Hunter JO (1998) A review of associations between Crohn's disease and consumption of sugars. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:229-338

89. Russel MG, Engels LG, Muris JW et al (1998) "Modern life" in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study with special emphasis on nutritional factors. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:243-249

90. Reif S, Klein I, Lubin F et al (1997) Pre-illness dietary factors in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 40:754-760

91. Persson PG, Ahlbom A, Hellers G (1992) Diet and inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. Epidemiology 3:47-52

92. Koletzko S, Sherman P, Corey M et al (1989) Role of infant feeding practices in development of Crohn's disease in childhood. BMJ 298:1617-1618

93. Rigas A, Rigas B, Glassman M et al (1993) Breastfeeding and maternal smoking in the etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in childhood. Ann Epidemiol 3:387-392

94. Thompson NP, Montgomery SM, Wadsworth ME et al (2000) Early determinants of inflammatory bowel disease: use of two national longitudinal birth cohorts. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:25-30

95. Ekbom A, Adami HO, Helmick CG et al (1990) Perinatal risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 132:1111-1119

96. Thompson NP, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ (1995) Perinatal and childhood risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. Eur J Gastroen-terol Hepatol 7:385-390

97. Wakefield AJ, Ekbom A, Dhillon AP et al (1995) Crohn's disease: pathogenesis and persistent measles virus infection. Gastroenterology 108:911-916

98. Pardi DS, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ et al (1999) Perinatal exposure to measles virus is not associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 5:104-106

99. Thompson NP, Montgomery SM, Pounder RE, Wake-field AJ (1995) Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease? Lancet 345:1071-1074

100. Davis RL, Kramarz P, Bohlke K et al (2001) Measles-mumps-rubella and other measles-containing vaccines do not increase the risk for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study from the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155:354-359

101. Gent AE, Hellier MD, Grace RH et al (1994) Inflammatory bowel disease and domestic hygiene in infancy. Lancet 343:766-767

102. Sullivan SN (1990) hypothesis revisited: toothpaste and the cause of Crohn's disease. Lancet 336:1096-1097

103. Klein I, Reif S, Farbstein H et al (1998) Preillness non dietary factors and habits in inflammatory bowel disease. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 30:247-251

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Dieting Dilemma and Skinny Solutions

Dieting Dilemma and Skinny Solutions

The captivating thing about diets is that you don't get what is researched or predicted or calculated but rather, you get precisely what you expect. If the diet resonates with you then it will likely work, if it doesn't resonate, it won't.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment