Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for probiotic action including the antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria either by inhibition of adherence and translocation or by production of anti-bacterial substances such as anti-microbial pep-
Table 2. Mechanisms of action of probiotics
Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria Decreases luminal pH Secretes bacteriocidal proteins Colonisation resistance Blocks epithelial binding
Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier function Produces SCFA Enhances mucus production Increases barrier integrity
Increases IL-10 and TGFP and decreases TNF Increases IgA production tides (bacteriocins) and hydrogen peroxide. Probiotics also stimulate mucosal defence both at the level of immune and epithelial function with an increase in sIgA production, blockade of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines levels, stimulation of intestinal mucin expression and improvement of gut permeability. Finally they are able to produce nutrients of special importance to the intestine such as short-chain fatty acids and vitamins (Table 2).
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Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.