Stewenius et al. [9] found an annual incidence of 1.6 cases per 100,000 population compared with 7.3 of cases of UC. Another recent epidemiological study [10], considering patients submitted or not to surgical treatment, showed an annual incidence of IC of up to 2.4 per 100,000 population, which means about a 20% incidence. This rate seems to be too high and confirms how assessment depends on diagnostic accuracy and the parameters on which it is measured. In fact, Price [11], who considered only pathological features of the resected specimens in patients submitted to colectomy and identifying IC when a firm diagnosis of either UC or CD could not be made, found a 10% incidence of IC. Similarly, Lee [12] found IC in 16% of urgent colectomy specimens. However, this number decreases by half when clinical features, serologic data, radiologic and endoscopic features are taken into account [8]. In addition, other factors may contribute to the variation in the incidence of IC, such as interobserver variation in histo-logical interpretation, making diagnosis on the surgical specimen with or without follow-up, basing diagnosis on endoscopic biopsy and not on the colectomy specimen.

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