Effect of IBD on Pregnancy

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As for the progress of pregnancy during IBD, many studies show that pregnant patients may have an ordinary gestational course during the stages of disease quiescence even if there still is, for reasons not yet explained, a risk that is about twice as high compared with healthy women to have complications such as delay of foetal intrauterine growth, prematurity and low birth weight. Therefore, strict obstetrical follow-up, particularly during the third trimester, is necessary [14,15].

There is much evidence that any relapse of the disease, especially CD, increases considerably the risk of adverse events such as foetal malformations, premature delivery and miscarriage, emphasising the importance of planning for conception during the quiescence stage and the use of all diagnostic and therapeutical tools available to prevent or intensively treat any relapse of the activity stage during the entire course of pregnancy [16].

As for UC, any activity stage during pregnancy often determines a state of weakness for the expectant mother that frequently affects foetal growth negatively, causing low birth weight and premature delivery. This fact emphasises the importance of thorough and early nutritional therapy and intensive support of the overall conditions of the expectant mother. A recent study revealed the likely association between UC relapse during pregnancy and an increased tendency of foetal malformations [17]. The percentage of miscarriage-premature delivery associated with CU in the active non-fulminating stage is 18-40%, with values up to 60% in the case of fulminating relapses.

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