Diagnosis

Diagnosis of CD is complex and has to be based on the careful evaluation of clinical symptoms as well as laboratory testing, radiological studies, endoscopy and histolog-ical evaluation of mucosa biopsies. It is important to remember that there is no laboratory finding which would be characteristic for the disease; in some cases, however, anaemia and leukocytosis with decreased concentration of serum proteins and albumins may lead to such a suspicion. The mainstream diagnosis is colonoscopy. Segmental inflammatory changes, irregular ulcerations of the mucosa surrounded by swollen, protruded or normal mucosa are typical. Pathological changes in the small bowel can be seen in X-ray examinations. Contrast studies show segmental stenosis, linear ulcerations and fistulae. Radiological studies can also have some value in diagnosis of the ascending colon involvement but are less specific in evaluation of the rectal changes. CT scans aid in identification of intra-abdom-inal abscess and other complications of the disease.

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