Chapter 9: MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART CARDIOVASCULAR INNERVATION
Despite numerous descriptive studies regarding the location of cardiac ganglia, little is known regarding the immunohistochemical cues required for the patterning of myocardial innervation. NC cell migration is critical for this process, as NC cells serve as precursors for the cardiac nerves and ganglia.85 Cardiac ganglia and nerves are present in the 7-week gestation human embryo.!67 The density of cardiac innervation exhibits a gradient of decreasing density from the atrium to the ventricle. It is interesting to note that functional adrenergic receptors are present on the embryonic heart before histologic evidence of autonomic nerves.!68 The differential appearance and distribution of peptide-containing nerves indicate that there is a maturational order to the autonomic and sensory components of the developing human heart.167
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.