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Oblique Sinus Echocardiography

Figure 2-15: Left ventricular long-axis method of tomographic cardiac dissection (looking from left flank toward the midsternum). Continuity between mitral and aortic valves is clearly seen. The oblique sinus (*) abuts the wall of the left atrium. A, anterior mitral leaflet; Ao, ascending aorta; CS, coronary sinus; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; P, posterior aortic cusp; PM, posteromedial mitral papillary muscle; R, right aortic cusp; RVO , right ventricular outflow; SVC, superior vena cava; arrows point to the right upper and lower pulmonary veins.

Figure 2-15: Left ventricular long-axis method of tomographic cardiac dissection (looking from left flank toward the midsternum). Continuity between mitral and aortic valves is clearly seen. The oblique sinus (*) abuts the wall of the left atrium. A, anterior mitral leaflet; Ao, ascending aorta; CS, coronary sinus; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; P, posterior aortic cusp; PM, posteromedial mitral papillary muscle; R, right aortic cusp; RVO , right ventricular outflow; SVC, superior vena cava; arrows point to the right upper and lower pulmonary veins.

These three tomographic planes of the heart have been particularly useful in echocardiography. Serial sections within each plane produce a collage of anatomic slices Fig. 2-16, Plate 7)

that can be used for three-dimensional reconstruction, which is beyond the scope of this chapter. The tomographic planes of section can be tailored to the different imaging modalities. Thus echocardiography and SPECT generally employ the primary planes ofthe heart. In contrast, CJ and MRI use the primary planes ofthe body. The parasagittal or oblique planes ofthe body serve radionuclide angiography and left ventriculography.When the tomographic examination is not configured to the primary planes of the heart but rather to the planes of the body, the terms short, long, and frontal can be misleading (Figs. 2-17 and 2-18).

Frontal Section The Heart

Figure 2-17: Tomographic sections of the heart in the transverse (A) and frontal (B) planes of the body. A tomographic section in the transverse plane of the body (A) results in a four-chamber view of the heart. A tomographic section along the frontal plane of the body (B) results in an oblique short-axis view of the heart. C. MRI image corresponding to A. CS, coronary sinus; DAo, descending thoracic aorta; IVC, inferior vena cava; LA, left atrium; LAD, left anterior descending

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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