Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting may occur as a result of digitalis excess. Hepatomegaly associated with tricuspid valve disease or severe right-sided heart failure may cause right-upper-quadrant epigastric pain and fullness as well as anorexia. Abdominal pain due to visceral ischemia or infarction may occur in a patient who has had a period of very low cardiac output. The pain of some gastrointestinal diseases may be referred or extend to the chest or back and lead to confusion with myocardial ischemia.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.