Bicuspid Arterial Valves
A bicuspid aortic or pulmonary valve is due to a failure of development of an intercalated valve cushion, resulting in a valve with two equal-size cusps, neither containing a raphe, or to fusion of adjacent valve anlagen, in which case the cusps are generally unequal in size, with the larger containing a raphe of varying length.
Arterial Valve Stenosis or Atresia
Fusion of two or all three of the arterial valve anlagen probably results in stenosis or atresia of the valve.
Absent Arterial Valves
Failure of the arterial valve anlagen to develop may explain the rare occurrence of absence of the pulmonary or aortic valve.
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