Ventricular Septal Defect, Eisenmenger Type
Ventricular Septal Defect, Supracristal Type
The supracristal type of ventricular septal defect probably is due to either simple failure of truncal and conal septal fusion or septal malalignment, which prevents fusion.
The primary anomaly in tetralogy of Fallot probably is an anterior displacement to a varying degree of the conal septum, leading to unequal partitioning of the conus and reduction of the right ventricular infundibulum. A large basilar ventricular septal defect and dextroposition of the aortic valve result from failure of the displaced conal septum to participate in closure of the interventricular foramen. Pulmonary vascular hypoplasia probably is a secondary result of diminished forward blood flow. As was mentioned above, tetralogy of Fallot frequently is associated with 22q11 deletion, particularly in the setting of severe pulmonary atresia or when associated with extracardiac anomalies.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.