Inspection And Palpation Of The Precordium

Aortic Stenosis Palpation

Inspection and palpation of the cardiac pulsations of the anterior chest have been practiced by physicians since ancient times and have a solid scientific basis. The results of precordial inspection and palpation have been correlated with noninvasive studies, hemodynamic data, and surgical and autopsy studies202,203 and remain an important part of the cardiovascular examination. Their usefulness depends on an understanding of cardiovascular physiology, the proficiency of the examiner, and his...

Peripheral Resistance And Its Determinants

Blood Flow And Blood Pressure

Pressure, flow, and resistance are related most often through Poiseuille's equation, which was first formulated in 1842. Based on a series of careful observations of water flowing through rigid tubes, Poiseuille demonstrated that the resistance to flow R through a tube is proportional to tube length L and fluid viscosity h and inversely proportional to the tube radius to the fourth power r4 . These variables can be related to each other in the following way Poiseuille's equation applies to the...

Left Ventricular Pseudotendon

Cardiac Transverse Sinus

Collage of anatomic sections obtained by bread slicing the heart in its short-axis plane, corresponding to the tomographic sections obtained by echocardiography and SPECT imaging, viewed from the apex toward the base of the heart. B. Comparable sestamibi SPECT images of the left ventricle showing normal myocardial perfusion at rest and with exercise. SA, short axis. Figure 2-58 Schematic diagram of the three levels of short-axis tomographic views used in...

Clinical Significance Of Transverse Pericardial

Oblique Pericardial Sinus

Chapter 2 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE HEART CORRELATIVE ANATOMY This section in this chapter is an illustrated review of applied cardiac anatomy. The clinical significance of the anatomy described is highlighted in italics. The fibrous parietal pericardium is a resilient sac that envelops the heart and attaches onto the great vessels. 5 Almost the entire ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery and portions of both venae cavae and all four pulmonary veins are intrapericardial Fig. 2-19 . These...