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However, if the patient's early life was unhappv. particularly in relationships w ith parents, this may adversely inlluence the relationship with the doctor. Most often this involves either unmet dependency or mistrust. With the former the impetus is to attempt to break down normal professional boundaries, while with the latter rapport cannot be established and hostility and suspiciousness may permeate the consultation, The doctor requires to recognise w hen abnormal transferences develop and then to slick to the reality of the relationship occasionally it may he necessary to bring the development of abnormal transference to the patient's conscious awareness so that the
In thinking about Ewing's point, I imagine talking to this distinguished philosopher, a fellow of the British Academy and a lecturer at Cambridge, in my backyard in California. Grab a red-hot coal from your charcoal grill he challenges me. Hold it in your hand and observe carefully the searing unendurable pain that arises in your consciousness. Does that seem anything like a brain state I am so sure that he has the empirical facts right that I grant his premises without even performing the experiment. Leibniz and Ewing draw forcefully to our attention the fact that having an experience is quite unlike what one supposes perceiving a brain state or process would be like they conclude that experiences and thoughts are not brain states or processes. Can we grant the premise but avoid the conclusion
The ego-psychological paradigm placed the ego as the central structure emerging, as Freud himself had suggested, out of the perceptual apparatus. The ego functioned as an executive, forging compromises between the id, the superego and external reality. The primary contribution of the post-Freudians was to redress Freud's overemphasis on libido and unconscious motivation. Instead, they emphasised the significance of conscious awareness and the adaptive functions of the ego. The main shift was away from an interest in the contents of the unconscious to the processes that serve the function of keeping those contents out of the consciousness, namely defences.
2 Hypnosis is sleep, loss of consciousness or amnesia. The client may ask 'How will you wake me up ', or 'How come I heard everything you said ' The origin of the word hypnosis is the Greek word for sleep. Many accounts of hypnosis describe it as similar to the early stage of sleep when one is drifting in and out of conscious awareness but still awake. Clients' confusion about hypnosis being a state of sleep is further compounded by their knowledge that sleepwalking occurs in the hypnagogic stage of sleep. Our semantic difficulties in describing the experience of trance, of hypnosis, have contributed to this misconception about hypnosis. Clients usually find it helpful when they can recall an experience of profound concentration
The goal is to help patients integrate dissociated or repressed traumatic material into conscious awareness in such a way that they can tolerate experiencing the memories as part of themselves. In this way the traumatic past is not incompatible with their present experience. Patients should emerge from therapy having reviewed not only what was done to them but what they did to protect themselves, not only what they lost but what they had valued and why.
Relation between unconscious intent and conscious awareness of that intent is more unpredictable. In addition to speaking to the problem of free will, Libet's work is important also in that he has scientifically demonstrated that unconscious intentionality occurs in the waking state.
We urgently need to maintain every 'cog and wheel' the so-called art of intelligent tinkering (Leopold, 1953). This involves maintaining as many interactions and interaction strengths, as well as individuals and populations, as possible, to retain the status quo of current ecosystems. But this returns us again to the inevitability of change. Besides changes to our own genome, which generally seems to have a minimal environmental ethic, and natural changes to the earth's climate, there is the looming, difficult-to-reverse juggernaut of human-induced climate change. Whether Gaia has the correctional fortitude to attend these issues we do not know, and is currently at the hands of the human consciousness.
When we consider those items that are selected for conscious awareness, we need to contrast the mutually shared aspects of consciousness from the private and personal aspects of consciousness. Let us imagine a scene in which two people are in a therapist's office. Both individuals are conscious of the same view. They perceive the same desk, couch, carpet, books if they look through the windows, they see the sunlight and the movement of the trees. They hear the same street noises the sound of passing cars, the barking of a dog. This can be described as an objective consciousness of socially shared perceptions and experiences. But at the same time the patient and the therapist are both conscious of their own associations, daydreams, and fantasies items of consciousness that are selected by their individual selves and are completely idiosyncratic. These items of consciousness are not part of a common objective consciousness. Their selection depends on the individual's own history and...
Many types of consciousness may be experienced by an individual. A few examples are thoughts and ideas, feelings, attention, memories, control of one's behavior, and dreams. It appears that consciousness is a function of brain activity and that each individual may have several consciousnesses.
Several explanations for why people dream have been proposed. Probably the best known is that of Sigmund Freud, who suggested that dreams represent unconscious wish fulfillment. Freud also thought that dreams often might threaten conscious awareness and distinguished between the manifest content of the dream (the actual script of the dream) and the latent content, or symbolic meaning, of the dream. Dream analysis was thought to be an important source of information for psychotherapy. Other explanations of dreaming are likely to focus less on threat than on the need to dream as a means of dealing with daily concerns or cleaning house mentally. Little agreement has been reached regarding the functions of dreaming.
The most obvious example of a surgical effect on consciousness is the split-brain procedure, which separates the functioning of the two cerebral hemispheres by dividing the corpus callosum (see Section 3.3). The separated hemispheres show individualized consciousnesses and in some cases respond differently to the same stimulus.
After long-term memory is established, why may there be no need for hippocampal involvement Can we be aware of a reflex action involving our skeletal muscles Is this awareness necessary for the response Explain, identifying the neural pathways involved in the reflex response and the conscious awareness of a stimulus.
Research on human memory helps us to understand the need for caution in these matters. It suggests that there are different kinds of memory systems and hence different types of memories. Certain sets of memories are consistently reactivated moment by moment. These memories concern the facts of our physical, mental and demographic identity. They orient us in the world. Conventionally, this is variously referred to as declarative or explicit2 or autobiographical memory. Declarative memory - the term I will use from now on - is the underlying organisation that allows us to consciously recall facts and events. It refers to the conscious memory for people, objects and places. It involves symbolic or imaginistic knowledge that allows facts and experiences to be called into conscious awareness in the absence of the things they stand for. This kind of memory includes semantic memory for general and personal facts and knowledge and episodic memory for specific events. In normal adult...
When subjects are awakened during a REM period, they usually report dreaming. Accordingly, it is customary to consider REM sleep as dream sleep. Another curious characteristic of REM sleep is that most voluntary muscles are temporarily paralyzed. Two exceptions, in addition to the muscles of respiration, include the extraocular muscles, which contract rhythmically to produce the rapid eye movements, and the muscles of the middle ear, which protect the inner ear (see Chapter 4). Muscle paralysis is caused by an active inhibition of motor neurons mediated by a group of neurons located close to the locus ceruleus in the brainstem. Many of us have experienced this muscle paralysis on waking from a bad dream, feeling momentarily incapable of running from danger. In certain sleep disorders in which skeletal muscle contraction is not temporarily paralyzed in REM sleep, subjects act out dream sequences with disturbing results, with no conscious awareness of this happening.
As a child, this woman experienced her father's intense uncontrolled rage reactions, which could be directed at her for reasons that she could never fathom. The rage appeared out of the blue she felt herself, as I did, to be an innocent victim, so that my feeling state in my present moment of consciousness corresponded to a feeling state from the patient's past. My irritated tone of voice that accompanied my saying that she wanted me to produce something out of the blue undoubtedly served as a metonymic association of her father's anger. What is of interest in this example of projective identification is that this patient's unconscious inten-tionality induced in me a replica of her own experiences as a child, and as a consequence I knew how this woman felt when she was the victim of her father's rage. I felt the sense of being unjustly attacked and also experienced the total unpredictability of the other's rage. Her unconscious communication of feelings produced a change in my sense...
Since Freud, the evidence for unconscious mentation has steadily accumulated. Studying unconscious processes has never been as exciting or promising as it is today because of a gradual rapprochement between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Factors operating outside of conscious awareness are now recognised in many cognitive psychological theories. Unconscious activities are understood to constitute far more of mentation than consciousness could ever hope to explain. Findings from cognitive psychology and neuroscience have repeatedly demonstrated that a significant proportion of our behaviour and emotional reactions is controlled by autonomous, unconscious structures, bypassing consciousness altogether (Damasio, 1999 Pally, 2000). Psychoanalysis and cognitive psychology nowadays also converge on the recognition that meaning systems include both conscious and unconscious aspects of experience. The most compelling evidence for the unconscious has emerged from studies of perception. What...
Freud used the term unconscious in three different senses. Firstly, he used it descriptively to denote that which is not in our consciousness at any given moment but is nonetheless available to us. This is no longer a controversial notion in contemporary psychology. Cognitive neuroscience has shown that most of the working brain is non-conscious in this sense for example, memory can be acquired without any conscious awareness and thinking, decision making and problem solving all involve unconscious aspects (Milner et al., 1998). Even our processing of emotional experience has been shown to occur unconsciously in an automatic way (Solms &
There is a general recognized feeling that in Africa at the present moment humans 'are waging an undeclared war against insects in the competitive struggle for existence' as Kumar puts it (1984 4), and almost no crop in Africa is free from attacks by insects, at least to some degree. It is estimated worldwide that crop losses from insects amounts to around 14 per cent of the potential crop (1984 8), and this figure may be higher in Africa. Given these losses to subsistence farmers in 1996 the Malawi government instituted a four-year project, supported by the British government through the Department for International Development (DFID), and costing some 1.7 million. The aim of the project was to improve the welfare of poor farmers in Malawi by reducing crop losses from insect pests, weeds and diseases, and to encourage the adoption of low-cost, sustainable pest-management strategies. The project focused on four important food crops grown by smallholder farmers in the Shire Highlands -...
Matter, even many) p-traits that cannot be ascribed to beings that aren't persons because of them lacking certain abilities. In this vein it would be right to say that a person, but not an animal can be virtuous or courteous as these traits require a conceptual grasp of certain values or norms that is beyond reach for any known animal mind. However, compared to character as it may be attributed to beings which are not persons, personality is not merely a construct with some extra dimensions. Rather, there is a qualitative difference due to the fact that persons are self-referential beings, who not only have character traits, but, moreover, hold a set of beliefs about these traits as well.125 What persons believe about their own p-traits is part of a more complex system of self-related beliefs (and, as we will see, motifs) that constitutes their self-concept. When, in the third section, we found that persons as moral agents need to have a concept of themselves being members of a...
Being mindful of the dangers of overgratification is important. Nevertheless, the indiscriminate application of the principle of abstinence represents a manipulation of the transference. The iatrogenic effects of an overly austere approach can contribute to unnecessary suffering or discomfort and give rise to an unproductive exaggeration of psychopathology. For example, greeting the patient with silence and no smile will almost certainly heighten anxiety, especially if the patient is prone to paranoid anxieties. Whether this is helpful remains an open question. We do well to remind ourselves in this respect, as Inderbitzin & Levy (2000) suggest, that any treatment modality that has the power to cure also has the power to harm.
Recurrent superficial bladder tumours.34 Another study described increasing specificity and positive predictive values to above 90 with awareness and exclusion of certain categories that incur high false positive results.35 Thus, extrapolation of these data to an asymptomatic population is difficult. BLCA-4 is another nuclear matrix protein that appears to be specific for bladder cancer. It is expressed in 75 of tumour tissue and 100 of normal-appearing bladder epithelium for patients with bladder tumour elsewhere.36 While this level of sensitivity is significantly better than urine cytology, evaluation of this test in at-risk patients without a history of bladder cancer is needed to judge its potential in mass screening projects.
Psychodynamic treatment is rooted in the exploration of unconscious implications of traumatic loss, with the premise that the disorder is complicated by unconscious implications of the trauma (Horowitz, 1976 Horowitz, Wilner et al., 1980). At the same time it can help to strengthen ego function by bringing unconscious determinants of symptomatology into conscious awareness, thereby rendering the symptoms less overwhelming and facilitating coping (Marmar, Weiss & Pynoos, 1995 Menninger & Wilkinson, 1988).
An intuitive analysis reveals that different ProM activities are associated with different conscious experiences. For example, waiting for the pot to boil is a short-term task it is likely to be kept active in working memory and to dominate conscious awareness. By contrast, if we plan in the morning to get groceries en route from work later in the day, this involves a different type of conscious experience. This plan is not likely to remain active and dominant in working memory it is out of conscious awareness for most of the retention interval (i.e., the period between making the plan and executing it). Instead, the retention interval is filled with other activities, the ProM-task-relevant cue (e.g., the supermarket) appears incidentally as a natural part of these other activities (e.g., driving home from work), and what is of interest is whether the cue succeeds in bringing the previously formed plan back into conscious awareness (Einstein & McDaniel, 1996 Graf & Uttl, 2001...
The thermoregulatory system we used as an example in the previous section, and many of the body's other homeostatic control systems, belong to the general category of stimulus-response sequences known as reflexes. Although in some reflexes we are aware of the stimulus and or the response, many reflexes regulating the internal environment occur without any conscious awareness.
These receptors monitor the length and tension of the muscles, movement of the joints, and the effect of movements on the overlying skin. In other words, the movements themselves give rise to afferent input that, in turn, influences the movements via negative feedback. As we shall see next, their input not only provides negative-feedback control over the muscles but contributes to the conscious awareness of limb and body position as well.
Most of us prefer to believe that what we see and experience accounts for all that is important in life. All too often we rely on our sense impressions and make little or no effort to probe deeper. Psychoanalysis, however, suggests that we are driven by conflicting thoughts, feelings and wishes that are beyond our conscious awareness but which nonetheless affect our behaviour - from behind the scenes, as it were. The possibility that we may not know ourselves undermines our wish for self-determination and casts a shadow over our preferred belief that we can control the future.
There are several types of memory disturbance in schizophrenia. The distinction between explicit memory (conscious recollection of prior events) and implicit memory (occurring outside of conscious awareness, as in improved performance resulting from a series of learning trials) has been useful (Squire 1992). Schizophrenic patients tend to show greater deficits in explicit memory in tasks such as recognition and recall of word lists, and to show relative intactness in implicit memory in ones such as motor skill tasks in which practice improves performance.
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