Anxiety Disorders

While anxiety is a normal emotion experienced at some time by virtually all humans, 'pathological' anxiety, excessive or inappropriate to the situation, may appear in the form of an anxiety disorder. The distinction between normal and 'pathological' anxiety needs to be established for each. Normal anxiety has a protective function in threatening situations and may enhance motivation to resolve the threat. On the other hand, pathological anxiety serves no useful purpose and is associated with an...

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

In the 1980s, the literature of clinical case reports of successful hypnotic work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients continued to grow. However, in addition to these clinical case reports, the literature began to present new hypnotic techniques for working with psychotic and personality disorder patients and the integration of these techniques into established psychological theory and conceptual models of hypnosis (Baker, 1981, 1983a, b Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986...

Hypnosis And The Triphasic Treatment Of Trauma

Dissociation is a commonplace reaction to trauma in psychiatric patients and in non-patient populations (Putnam, 1985 Spiegel, 1986, 1991). Without entering the complex domain of the relationship of dissociativity to hypnotizability, I will simply acknowledge that authorities disagree about their relationship, but most concur that they are difficult to distinguish when both are present to a high extent, and their copresence is commonplace in dissociative disorder patients. Conse quently, most...

Training In Hypnosis

Training programs in using hypnosis differ from each other around the world. Each program strives for standards of training that enhance the learning, accreditation, and public trust in practitioners of hypnotic interventions in individuals seeking responsible health care. While many clinicians want to learn hypnosis in order to treat the more difficult cases which they encounter, true proficiency occurs over time and requires advanced workshops in subsequent months or years. Moreover, an...

Adverse Effects Of The Experience Of Hypnosis

Early concerns about the possible adverse effects of hypnosis were related to the issue of volitional control and the potential for the hypnotized subject to act in ways in which they would not otherwise behave or accept. In particular, concern focused on the commission of criminal offences and the alteration of volitional control in the many cases of sexual abuse and seduction that had come to the attention of the authorities. These concerns were expressed as early as 1784 by the Commission to...

Hypnosis And Depression The Definition Of Hypnosis

Yapko (1992) argues that the discrepancy in opinion about the value of hypnosis in the treatment of depression can, in part, be understood by variations in the model of hypnosis being utilized. He describes three general models traditional, standardized, and utilization. Other workers distinguish between directive and non-directive or Ericksonian techniques. The opposition to the use of hypnosis in depression is primarily associated with the traditional, standardized or directive approaches and...

Hypnosis And Memory

The use of hypnosis to enhance memory can lead to major changes in recall, as well as in the confidence that people hold in the accuracy of their recall. The influence of hypnosis on memory generally has been the focus of substantial investigation and comment (American Medical Association, 1985, 1994 American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 1995 Laurence & Perry, 1988 McConkey & Sheehan, 1995 Pettinati, 1988, Scheflin & Shapiro, 1989), and the influence of hypnosis on recovered memory...

Training In Hypnosis My Programs And How I Teach Them

First, I will present two workshops, each given over 8 weeks in the evenings one in the Fall and one in the Spring. Each workshop is 22 hours in length, lasting nearly 3 hours each evening. They are titled 'Clinical Methods in Hypnosis and Psychotherapy Integration and Applications Introductory Workshop Fall and Advanced Workshop Spring .' Then, I will describe briefly an ongoing Senior Seminar which meets monthly throughout the year for graduates of the first two workshops. While the...

The Transitional Period A More Optimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

A significant breakthrough in understanding the potential use of hypnosis with psychotic patients came in 1945 with the publication of Lewis Wolberg's book on the hypnoanalysis of Johan R. Johan R. had been confined on the chronic ward of a hospital with a diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia when Wolberg first attempted to work with him. It took Wolberg more than a year to establish a beginning therapy relationship with the patient. Beginning with traditional psychoanalytic techniques,...

Hypnosis And Psychoneuroimmunology

In light of current interest in psychoneuroimmunology and mind-body connections, a somewhat neglected area of hypnotherapy research of major theoretical and practical interest is the underlying neurophysiological processes that might mediate hypnosis in its contribution to immunomodulation. Interpretation of earlier research is hindered by methodological shortcomings these shortcomings are now being addressed and overcome with the most recent wave of research. It is suggested that the reduction...

Conversion Disorder Dissociation And Hypnotic Trance

The so-called dissociative phenomena are explained by Kihlstrom as follows. The information is not processed explicitly the patient does not consciously perceive an object or remember a happening. Implicitly, however, the stimuli do influence the patient's behaviour. These observations support the view that there are two memory systems the explicit memory system and the implicit memory system Schacter, 1987 or memory with and without awareness Jacoby amp Dallas, 1981 . A similar distinction is...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain Management Useful Clinical Strategies

The typical chronic pain patient will be taking several medications, and will have been treated unsuccessfully by several specialists before considering hypnosis. These may have included neurologists and neuro surgeons 'when in doubt, cut it out' , manipulative procedures by orthopedic and chiropractic specialists 'when in doubt, pound it out' , physical therapists 'when in doubt, walk it out' , mental health professionals 'when in doubt, talk it out' , and extensive pharmacological...

Do You Really Want To Start Smoking

Another area in which hypnotic strategies are utilized, but the concepts of hypnosis are not mentioned, is in the 3-minute smoking cessation interaction. At the conclusion of the oral examination and cancer screening, if there is an indication by the patient that there is a desire to 'quit', the following sample script is useful. doctor When did you have your last cigarette patient On the way to the office, about half an hour ago. doctor So you had your last cigarette at three o'clock, on 6,...

Neurophysiology Of The Hypnotic State It Takes Effort To Be Hypnotized

Hypnosis involves an amplification of focused attention either towards or away from an internal or external event e.g., Hilgard, 1965, 1986 Krippner amp Bindler, 1974 . Since the nineteenth century hypnotically responsive persons commonly report profound physical relaxation for exceptions, see B nyai amp Hilgard, 1976 and alterations in perception following a hypnotic induction. In this physically relaxed state, they report their experiences as being more involuntary and effortless e.g.,...

The Early Period A Pessimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

The current status of clinical hypnosis in the treatment of Personality and Psychotic Disorders has been evolving since the mid-1800s. The earliest notation of successful hypnosis with a psychotic patient was reported by Esquirol in 1838. In this report, Esquirol described experiments done by Abbe Faria and himself in 1813 and 1816 on the effects of magnetism in mental disease. Esquirol reported that he and Faria experimented on eleven women, either insane or monomanic. He stated that only one...

Current Status Of Clinical Hypnosis With Personality And Psychotic Disorders

The majority of the experimental research studies and clinical reports to date supports the conclusion that psychotic and personality disorder patients have hypnotic capacity and can utilize that capacity productively and safely. As with all patient populations, there will be some individual patients who will decline to work with hypnosis. Aside from these self-selected exceptions, the usefulness and safety of hypnosis with the severely disturbed patient depends primarily on the skills and...

Pseudomemory

The phenomenon of pseudomemory is tied necessarily to subjects' acceptance of postevent misinformation. In operational terms, the conditions for establishing it in the hypnotic setting typically involve the administration of suggestions giving false information to subjects following the induction of hypnosis. Routinely, subjects are awakened subsequently and then tested for how well they remembered the events that they saw earlier. Empirically, there is a range of parameters that has been shown...

Controversies Surrounding The Use Of Hypnosis With The Dissociative Disorders

Many controversies currently surround the use of hypnosis with the dissociative disorders. Although they constitute an area of considerable interest, limitations of space preclude their extensive discussion here. The interested reader is referred to more thorough explorations elsewhere Kluft, 1995b,c, 1997a . Arguments for the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of the dissociative disorders have been countered by concerns that hypnosis has the capacity to play a role in the formation of...

Brief History Of Ptsd

There has been a tendency to slip into one of two mistaken extremes in regard to PTSD. One is a cynical attitude which implies that most patients are making up their symptoms for secondary gain. An example is a case in which an armored car driver was shot in the chest three times during a robbery. His two colleagues were killed as they were walking out of an elevator. The company he worked for objected to providing treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. This was not some fantasy of...

Dissociative Identity Disorder

The treatment of dissociative identity disorder is the subject of a voluminous literature, most of which addresses the role of hypnosis to some extent. Numerous articles by the author, summarized in Kluft 1992a,b , and a more recent text by Phillips and Frederick 1995 focus on hypnotic approaches. Dissociative identity disorder involves lesions of identity, consciousness, and memory. Ideally, treatment should help the patient achieve a subjective sense of a unified identity by integrating the...

Suitability Of Hypnosis For The Problem

Hypnosis is applicable in almost every area of medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy either as a primary treatment choice or as one that is used adjunctively. The clinician's familiarity with treating the presenting problem nonhypnotically is preeminent. Knowledge of hypnosis is like the buttress of the central structure one's specialty field. The clinician must stay within his or her area of expertise when utilizing hypnosis. Moreover, it is not so much whether or not to apply a hypnotic...

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

The treatment of reduced sexual desire may focus on anxiety reduction with respect to emotional intimacy or sexual involvement or the resolution of relationship difficulties. Hammond 1990 provides a script for using the 'master control room' metaphor to step-wise increase sexual functioning. Negotiation and the use of post-hypnotic suggestions in association with the control room analogy also offer ways of improving sexual responsiveness and overcoming patient resistance. Hypnosis offers good...

Clinical Hypnotherapy References

Bellak, L., Hurvich, M. amp Gediman, H. K. 1973 . Ego functions in schizophrenics, neurotics, and normals A systematic study of conceptual, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. New York Wiley. Binder, J. B., Bongar, B., Messer, S., Strupp, H. H., Lee, S. S. amp Peake, T. H. 1993 . Recommendations for improving psychotherapy training based on experiences with manual guided training and research Epilogue. Psychother. 30 4 , 599-600. Bloom, P. B. 1990 . The creative process in hypnotherapy. In M....