The Management Of Chronic Stress

The treatment of stress is divided into three phases (Stanley, Norman & Burrows, 1999). Firstly, the medical, psychiatric and psychological conditions that are the outcome of the stress experience are treated in their own right. Anxiety, depression or the effects of attempts to manage their psychological distress by alcohol or drug use require appropriate clinical management first. Secondly, the chronic hyperarousal is treated, and this 'arousal management' contributes to controlling the...

Therapeutic Intervention With Hypnosis

When evaluating a new patient, I listen to the patient's communication regarding dysphoric feelings of helplessness, anxiety, hopelessness, inner tension, insomnia, fear, restlessness, and so on. I introduce the idea of using hypnosis by making it relevant to the patient's presenting symptoms, saying to the patient something like this, 'Would you like to learn an exercise of how to reduce your anxiety and promote a sense of calmness and relaxation ' Patients generally respond affirmatively. I...

Hypnosis in the Management of Stress and Anxiety Disorders

NORMAN and GRAHAM D. BURROWS Stress is a ubiquitous phenomenon, with which we are all familiar and yet the term is used in popular and clinical contexts without precision. 'Stress' is the process whereby this distress occurs, rather than the psychological and or physiological distress response itself. The distress response resulting from the 'stress' process is a variable reaction that involves highly individual combinations of psychological or physiological distress....

Anxiety Disorders

While anxiety is a normal emotion experienced at some time by virtually all humans, 'pathological' anxiety, excessive or inappropriate to the situation, may appear in the form of an anxiety disorder. The distinction between normal and 'pathological' anxiety needs to be established for each. Normal anxiety has a protective function in threatening situations and may enhance motivation to resolve the threat. On the other hand, pathological anxiety serves no useful purpose and is associated with an...

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

In the 1980s, the literature of clinical case reports of successful hypnotic work with both psychotic and personality disorder patients continued to grow. However, in addition to these clinical case reports, the literature began to present new hypnotic techniques for working with psychotic and personality disorder patients and the integration of these techniques into established psychological theory and conceptual models of hypnosis (Baker, 1981, 1983a, b Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986...

Hypnosis And The Triphasic Treatment Of Trauma

Dissociation is a commonplace reaction to trauma in psychiatric patients and in non-patient populations (Putnam, 1985 Spiegel, 1986, 1991). Without entering the complex domain of the relationship of dissociativity to hypnotizability, I will simply acknowledge that authorities disagree about their relationship, but most concur that they are difficult to distinguish when both are present to a high extent, and their copresence is commonplace in dissociative disorder patients. Conse quently, most...

What Is Hypnosis

Like many psychological phenomena, intelligence, depression and anxiety, hypnosis is defined according to the subjective experience and report of participants and by the phenomena that accompany the 'hypnotic state.' The characteristics of this state include a redistribution of attention to an inward focus, a reduction of critical International Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis. Edited by G. D. Burrows, R. O. Stanley and P. B. Bloom 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd judgment and reality testing, a...

Training In Hypnosis

Training programs in using hypnosis differ from each other around the world. Each program strives for standards of training that enhance the learning, accreditation, and public trust in practitioners of hypnotic interventions in individuals seeking responsible health care. While many clinicians want to learn hypnosis in order to treat the more difficult cases which they encounter, true proficiency occurs over time and requires advanced workshops in subsequent months or years. Moreover, an...

Hypnosis And Depression The Definition Of Hypnosis

Yapko (1992) argues that the discrepancy in opinion about the value of hypnosis in the treatment of depression can, in part, be understood by variations in the model of hypnosis being utilized. He describes three general models traditional, standardized, and utilization. Other workers distinguish between directive and non-directive or Ericksonian techniques. The opposition to the use of hypnosis in depression is primarily associated with the traditional, standardized or directive approaches and...

Hypnosis And Memory

The use of hypnosis to enhance memory can lead to major changes in recall, as well as in the confidence that people hold in the accuracy of their recall. The influence of hypnosis on memory generally has been the focus of substantial investigation and comment (American Medical Association, 1985, 1994 American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 1995 Laurence & Perry, 1988 McConkey & Sheehan, 1995 Pettinati, 1988, Scheflin & Shapiro, 1989), and the influence of hypnosis on recovered memory...

The Transitional Period A More Optimistic View Of Hypnosis With Severely Disturbed Patients

A significant breakthrough in understanding the potential use of hypnosis with psychotic patients came in 1945 with the publication of Lewis Wolberg's book on the hypnoanalysis of Johan R. Johan R. had been confined on the chronic ward of a hospital with a diagnosis of hebephrenic schizophrenia when Wolberg first attempted to work with him. It took Wolberg more than a year to establish a beginning therapy relationship with the patient. Beginning with traditional psychoanalytic techniques,...

Hypnosis And Psychoneuroimmunology

In light of current interest in psychoneuroimmunology and mind-body connections, a somewhat neglected area of hypnotherapy research of major theoretical and practical interest is the underlying neurophysiological processes that might mediate hypnosis in its contribution to immunomodulation. Interpretation of earlier research is hindered by methodological shortcomings these shortcomings are now being addressed and overcome with the most recent wave of research. It is suggested that the reduction...

Hypnosis And Chronic Pain Management Useful Clinical Strategies

The typical chronic pain patient will be taking several medications, and will have been treated unsuccessfully by several specialists before considering hypnosis. These may have included neurologists and neuro surgeons 'when in doubt, cut it out' , manipulative procedures by orthopedic and chiropractic specialists 'when in doubt, pound it out' , physical therapists 'when in doubt, walk it out' , mental health professionals 'when in doubt, talk it out' , and extensive pharmacological...

Do You Really Want To Start Smoking

Another area in which hypnotic strategies are utilized, but the concepts of hypnosis are not mentioned, is in the 3-minute smoking cessation interaction. At the conclusion of the oral examination and cancer screening, if there is an indication by the patient that there is a desire to 'quit', the following sample script is useful. doctor When did you have your last cigarette patient On the way to the office, about half an hour ago. doctor So you had your last cigarette at three o'clock, on 6,...

Neurophysiology Of The Hypnotic State It Takes Effort To Be Hypnotized

Hypnosis involves an amplification of focused attention either towards or away from an internal or external event e.g., Hilgard, 1965, 1986 Krippner amp Bindler, 1974 . Since the nineteenth century hypnotically responsive persons commonly report profound physical relaxation for exceptions, see B nyai amp Hilgard, 1976 and alterations in perception following a hypnotic induction. In this physically relaxed state, they report their experiences as being more involuntary and effortless e.g.,...

Current Status Of Clinical Hypnosis With Personality And Psychotic Disorders

The majority of the experimental research studies and clinical reports to date supports the conclusion that psychotic and personality disorder patients have hypnotic capacity and can utilize that capacity productively and safely. As with all patient populations, there will be some individual patients who will decline to work with hypnosis. Aside from these self-selected exceptions, the usefulness and safety of hypnosis with the severely disturbed patient depends primarily on the skills and...

Controversies Surrounding The Use Of Hypnosis With The Dissociative Disorders

Many controversies currently surround the use of hypnosis with the dissociative disorders. Although they constitute an area of considerable interest, limitations of space preclude their extensive discussion here. The interested reader is referred to more thorough explorations elsewhere Kluft, 1995b,c, 1997a . Arguments for the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of the dissociative disorders have been countered by concerns that hypnosis has the capacity to play a role in the formation of...

Brief History Of Ptsd

There has been a tendency to slip into one of two mistaken extremes in regard to PTSD. One is a cynical attitude which implies that most patients are making up their symptoms for secondary gain. An example is a case in which an armored car driver was shot in the chest three times during a robbery. His two colleagues were killed as they were walking out of an elevator. The company he worked for objected to providing treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. This was not some fantasy of...

Dissociative Identity Disorder

The treatment of dissociative identity disorder is the subject of a voluminous literature, most of which addresses the role of hypnosis to some extent. Numerous articles by the author, summarized in Kluft 1992a,b , and a more recent text by Phillips and Frederick 1995 focus on hypnotic approaches. Dissociative identity disorder involves lesions of identity, consciousness, and memory. Ideally, treatment should help the patient achieve a subjective sense of a unified identity by integrating the...

Pacifier Finger And Thumb Sucking

According to the authors of 'Oral Habits A Behavioral Approach' Peterson amp Schneider, 1991 'Some 13 to 45 of children are reported to suck their digits. Practically all children who eventually take up the habit do so during their first few months. By 3.5 to 4 years of age, most children have discontinued the habit spontaneously. The severity and even presence of deleterious effects of finger sucking depends on the habit's frequency, duration, intensity, and position of the finger in the...

Suitability Of Hypnosis For The Problem

Hypnosis is applicable in almost every area of medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy either as a primary treatment choice or as one that is used adjunctively. The clinician's familiarity with treating the presenting problem nonhypnotically is preeminent. Knowledge of hypnosis is like the buttress of the central structure one's specialty field. The clinician must stay within his or her area of expertise when utilizing hypnosis. Moreover, it is not so much whether or not to apply a hypnotic...

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

The treatment of reduced sexual desire may focus on anxiety reduction with respect to emotional intimacy or sexual involvement or the resolution of relationship difficulties. Hammond 1990 provides a script for using the 'master control room' metaphor to step-wise increase sexual functioning. Negotiation and the use of post-hypnotic suggestions in association with the control room analogy also offer ways of improving sexual responsiveness and overcoming patient resistance. Hypnosis offers good...

Clinical Hypnotherapy References

Bellak, L., Hurvich, M. amp Gediman, H. K. 1973 . Ego functions in schizophrenics, neurotics, and normals A systematic study of conceptual, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. New York Wiley. Binder, J. B., Bongar, B., Messer, S., Strupp, H. H., Lee, S. S. amp Peake, T. H. 1993 . Recommendations for improving psychotherapy training based on experiences with manual guided training and research Epilogue. Psychother. 30 4 , 599-600. Bloom, P. B. 1990 . The creative process in hypnotherapy. In M....