Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

Bump To Birth Summary


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The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

I give this ebook my highest rating, 10/10 and personally recommend it.

Pregnancy childbirth and the puerperium 000099

Oedema, proteinuria and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, childbirth and the Pre-existing hypertension complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium 010.0 Pre-existing essential hypertension complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Any condition in I10 specified as a reason for obstetric care during pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium 010.1 Pre-existing hypertensive heart disease complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Any condition in I11.- specified as a reason for obstetric care during pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium 010.2 Pre-existing hypertensive renal disease complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Any condition in I12.- specified as a reason for obstetric care during pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium 010.3 Pre-existing hypertensive heart and renal disease complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Any condition in I13.- specified as a reason for obstetric care during pregnancy, childbirth or the...

Childbirth is triggered by hormonal and mechanical stimuli

Labor Contraction Feedback Loop

We traced the development of a human blastocyst into an embryo and then a fetus in Chapter 20. Throughout pregnancy, the muscles of the uterine wall periodically undergo slow, weak, rhythmic contractions called Braxton-Hicks contractions. These contractions become gradually stronger during the third trimester of pregnancy and are sometimes called false labor contractions. True labor contractions usually mark the beginning of childbirth. Both hormonal and mechanical stimuli contribute to the onset of labor. As soon as the baby clears the birth canal, it can start breathing and become independent of its mother's circulation. The umbilical cord may then be clamped and cut. The segment still attached to the baby dries up and sloughs off in a few days, leaving behind its distinctive signature, the belly button more properly called the umbilicus. The detachment and expulsion of the placenta and fetal membranes takes from a few minutes to an hour, and may be accompanied by uterine...

SIR epidemic models with time delays and nonconstant birth rate bNt

Takeuchi and Ma (1999) considered the following delayed SIR epidemic model with density dependent birth rate where S(t) + I(t) + R(t) N(t) denotes the total number of population at time t. The positive constants b, mi,M2, M3, P and 7 have the same biological meanings as in model (7). The nonnegative constant h is a time delay. Note that, in (10), the birth rate of population is dependent on the total number of population N(t).


Midsagittal Section

Childbirth or parturition occurs in three stages (1) onset of regular uterine contractions and dilation of the cervix (2) expulsion of the fetus (3) delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes. The third stage is followed by contraction of the uterus and control of bleeding. The factors that start labor are not completely understood, but it is clear that the hormone oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland and other hormones called prostaglandins are involved. The term gravida refers to a pregnant woman. A prefix may be added to show the number of pregnancies, such as primigravida, meaning a woman pregnant for the first time, or a number may be used, such as gravida 1, gravida 2, and so forth. The term para refers to a woman who has given birth. This means the production of a viable infant (500 g or more or over 20 weeks' gestation) regardless of whether the infant is alive at birth or

The Need for a Lifespan Developmental Approach within Memory Research Is More Urgent than Ever

The second Tsukuba International Conference on Memory was held in Japan from 18 to 20 December 1999. The theme of the conference was lifespan memory development, and it brought together many researchers concerned with the development of memory from birth to old age with a view to discussing the pressing need for a coherent lifespanmemory approach. There were three main reasons social, historical, and methodological behind the selection of this conference theme.

Clinical Reproductive Endocrinology Stimulation Protocols

With normal basal gonadotropins (35-37). Tan et al. (38) have reported life table analysis of conception and live birth rates in 3000 women undergoing IVF-ET with and without different regimens of the GnRH agonist busere-lin. They found that the cumulative conception rate and cumulative live birth rate were significantly higher in those patients treated with a downregulation regimen. The mechanism by which GnRH analogs improve follicular response is not yet known. Palermo et al. (34) reported improvement in synchronization of follicular development leading to a larger cohort of developing follicles, whereas others related it to the longer gonadotropin stimulation in the GnRH analog cycles.

Breeding for Wildness Rather than Domestication

Breeding wild animals is often more difficult than breeding domestic animals, since unusual breeding behavior is part of the reason some species are endangered. Improved knowledge about the species' social behavior and population biology needs are of assistance in the successful breeding of these difficult wild species, as is biotechnology. Frozen zoos have been established to maintain reproductive and other tissues for artificial insemination. Sometimes this artificial insemination involves the use of related surrogate species for instance, using domestic cattle to give birth to endangered gaur. Back breeding is being attempted in order to revive extinct species for example, breeding zebra so as to re-create the extinct quagga. As an increasing number of species become endangered and as their natural habitat continues to disappear, it is increasingly important to maintain these species through appropriate breeding programs.

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I

Infection often progressively enlarge, and they may lead to systemic spread of the bacteria. Infections are usually apparent from birth onward, and a common presenting infection is omphalitis with delayed separation of the umbilical cord. The most frequently encountered bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative enteric organisms, but fungal infections are also common. The absence of pus formation at the sites of infection is one of the hallmarks of LAD I. Severe gingivitis and periodontitis are major features among all patients who survive infancy. Impaired healing of traumatic or surgical wounds is also characteristic of this syndrome (Anderson and Smith 2001).

Genetics Mendel and Beyond

In the Middle Eastern desert 1,800 years ago, the rabbi faced a dilemma. A Jewish woman had given birth to a son. As required by the laws set down by God's commandment to Abraham almost 2,000 years previously and later reiterated by Moses, the mother brought her 8-day-old son to the rabbi for ritual penile circumcision. The rabbi knew that the woman's two previous sons had bled to death when their foreskins were cut. Yet the biblical commandment remained Unless he was circumcised, the boy could not be counted among those with whom God had made His solemn covenant. After consultation with other rabbis, it was decided to exempt this, the third son.

Cardiac Growth And Hypertrophy

From birth to maturation, the mammalian heart undergoes a sixfold increase in mass. The normal heart body weight ratio is species-specific. The largest hearts relative to body size occur in animals with survival requirements that depend on sustained exercise rather than on burst activity.6 In humans, intense, prolonged exercise training can produce an increase in cardiac mass. Isotonic exercise, such as running, produces eccentric hypertrophy, characterized by a normal ratio of wall thickness to dimension, whereas isometric exercise, such as weight lifting, stimulated concentric hypertrophy, associated with an increased ratio of wall thickness to dimension.7 Senescent animals and humans free of organic heart disease develop mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as a consequence of age-related decreases in the distensibility of the peripheral vasculature.8 The molecular, biochemical, and physiologic changes associated with physiologic hypertrophy differ both qualitatively and...

Cesarian Section and Cross Fostering of ES Cell Tetraploid Mice

Although it is by no means a requirement, we find it beneficial to deliver pups by performing a Cesarian-section (C-section) on the embryo transfer recipient on the morning of dpc 19.5. We find an increased incidence of neonatal complications when these mothers give birth to small litters, and the increased level of neonatal care we provide allows a higher proportion of pups to survive. To deliver neonates, the recipient mother is sacrificed, and the pups are rapidly removed from the uterus. Special care should be taken when cutting the umbilical cords of these neonates as the umbilicus is occasionally herniated, which can cause excessive bleeding. After removal from the uterus the pups should be quickly dried with a Q-tip, paying special attention to clear all fluid from the airways. Finally, the pups are placed under a heat lamp until they are cross-fostered. We cross-foster ES cell-tetraploid neonates delivered by C-section to BALB c mothers that have given birth either the same or...

Reproduction Behavior and Communication

Elephant seals communicate by producing loud barks and snorts with their trunks and mouths. These noises are often highly specific within isolated groups. Several different dialects have been identified. Elephant seals reach sexual maturity rapidly. Females give birth and mate in specific breeding grounds. Males are competitive and battle with raised heads, facing each other. They use their canine teeth as weapons. Dominant males Alternating between land and sea, a single elephant seal may travel up to thirteen thousand miles in one year. The migratory cycle starts toward the end of winter, after females give birth and conceive again. Females leave their breeding grounds and are soon followed by the males. Elephant seals search for food in specific foraging sites for about three months. Since they do not eat while on land, they dive continuously to great depths for their preferred diet of squid or bottom-dwelling fish. Once they haul themselves out of the sea onto land, it is time to...

Differential Gene Expression in Development

Working with a large zoo and a biotechnology company, developmental biologists are trying to rescue the banteng using cloning techniques. Over 25 years ago, geneticists at the San Diego Zoo began freezing cells from endangered species, creating a modern-day Noah's Ark in anticipation of the emergence of new knowledge about animal development and its application to reproductive cloning. In 2002, some banteng cells were thawed. Their nuclei were removed and fused into enucleated eggs from their domestic cow relatives. These eggs were then implanted in the uteri of domestic cows. Two of the cows gave birth to banteng clones, one of which has survived. The clone has the genetic characteristics of the nuclear donor.

Diseases of the nervous system G00G99

Excludes certain conditions originating in the perinatal period ( P00-P96 ) certain infectious and parasitic diseases ( A00-B99 ) complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium ( 000-099 ) congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities ( Q00-Q99 )

Reproduction and Birth

The female in heat unless he is displaced by a higher-ranking challenger. The female gives birth in cover, with her back legs bent to reduce the height from which the calf falls. Initially, the mother is alone with her calf, but later she may form a nursery group assisted by other females. The calf stands within five minutes of birth and suckles within the hour. The calf becomes independent of the mother around the sixteenth month. Play behavior, called nose-to-nose sniffing, between the young cements social bonds between them.

IVM of Oocytes from Women with PCOS

PCOS is a very heterogeneous syndrome, often first diagnosed when the patient presents complaining of infertility approximately 75 of these women suffer infertility due to anovulation. The majority of women with anovulation or oligo ovulation due to PCOS have menstrual irregularities, usually oligo- or amenorrhea, associated with clinical and or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism. In almost all these patients, ultrasonic scan of the ovaries typically reveals numerous antral follicles (28,29). Fertility treatments for women with PCOS include lifestyle management, administration of insulin-sensitizing agents, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, ovulation induction, ovarian stimulation, and IVF. As previously mentioned, this group of patients has an increased risk of severe OHSS from gonadotropin stimulation compared with women who have normal ovaries (5,30). The risk of multiple-follicle ovulation and subsequent multiple pregnancies is also of crucial importance (5,31). However, the...

Coming Truly Naked Into The World Scid

It is an inherited disease involving mutations in a single gene affecting T-cell function. Children born with this defect have no T-cell maturation from birth, and thus no B-cell function or CD8 killer cells. They have no adaptive immunity. They are basically tiny AIDS patients, and like AIDS patients are prey to virtually every pathogen, extrinsic or opportunistic, but in this case, from birth onward. The lack of defense against viral infections is usually apparent first. Some protection against viral disease may be conferred during the first year by innate immune mechanisms, and protection against some viruses and most bacteria may be provided by antibodies crossing the placenta from mother to child, or in breast milk. And the response to some bacteria is T-cell independent. But these infants will eventually be assaulted by round after round of T-dependent bacterial infections as well as viruses.

Clinical Focus Box 263

Incompetence of the internal anal sphincter is usually related to a surgical or mechanical factor or perianal disease, such as prolapsing hemorrhoids. Disorders of the neuromuscular mechanisms of the external sphincter and pelvic floor muscles may also result from surgical or mechanical trauma, such as during childbirth.

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

After the vagina receives the male penis, the semen is discharged into the upper recess opposite the opening of the cervix. At parturition, the vagina forms the birth canal through which the newborn passes to the outside. 14. When the female bony pelvis relaxes for childbirth, the ligaments of the bony pelvis and perineum become quite stretchable. This increases the diameters of the birth canal. (para 9-17) Initially after childbirth, the mammary gland secretes colostrum, consisting most importantly of antibodies, which protect the infant during the first 6 months of life. 17. Parturition is the process of childbirth. During its passage through the birth canal, the newborn makes two partial rotations to accommodate the diameters of the relaxed bony pelvis. In natural childbirth, there are several reflexes occurring normally at appropriate

What Are The Pressures Confronting Working Women Today

There are more house husbands or men working from home with a greater childcare and domestic role. Only women, however, can give birth, and those who wish to continue their careers have to juggle all the different professional, business, and family duties and responsibilities. This may result in significant pressures and stress because they are doing several jobs at the same time.

Transgenic Models in the NOD Mouse

Several cytokines have been selectively expressed in the pancreatic P cells of the NOD mouse. Transgenic expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 in P cells accelerates the development of autoimmune diabetes. The effect of transgenic IL-10, possibly because of B cell-induced activation of T-cells specific for cryptic determinants of self antigens, was surprising, given the capacity of IL-10 to inhibit disease development when administered to adult NOD mice (40). Although the mechanisms by which rat insulin gene promoter-IL-10 accelerates diabetes development are not yet well understood, ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important role (41). Conversely, viral IL-10, which shares anti-inflammatory but not immunostimulatory properties with cellular IL-10, induces leukocyte migration but inhibits the activation of Th1 cells and T1D development when expressed in P cells, probably by suppressing the production of IL-12 by dendritic cells and macrophages (42). Recruitment and activation of...

Adventitial Remodeling Elastin and Collagen

Structural remodeling that is associated with hypoxia (12). Studies have shown striking synthesis of elastin in the pulmonary arteries of these neonatal calves (36). There may be a role for IGF-1, as increased expression of this growth factor stimulates elastin synthesis in cultured vascular cells (14), as does TGF-B (25). Studies in the piglet by Allen and Haworth (1) showed that when the animal is subjected to hypoxia from birth, the fetal medial musculature does not regress, but connective tissue synthesis is not stimulated. When hypoxic exposure begins at 3 days of age, however, that is, after the fall in pulmonary vascular resistance and the regression of the fetal musculature, neosynthesis of elastin is apparent. Figure 1. A An artery from the lung of a 2-week-old calf raised at a simulated altitude of 4,300 m from birth. Systolic PAP was 100 mmHg. There is marked medial hypertrophy and adventitial thickening with neovascularization (x400). B and C In situ hybridization...

Changing demographics of the elderly in the general population

The risk of death at younger ages has decreased such that the proportion of a birth cohort surviving to old age has increased. Thus a growth rate of 1 will permit a doubling of the population in 70 years.7 Both birth rates and death rates have shifted to more stable lower levels, resulting in population ageing and increased longevity.

Multipatches with demographic structure

Where Ni is the number (or density) of a population in patch i, Bi(Ni) is the per capita birth rate of the population in patch i, is the death rate of individuals in patch i. Here, we have assumed that the regulation effect of population density only occurs in the birth process, but not in the death process. This type of demographic structure with variable population size was proposed by Cooke et al. (1999). We assume that Bi(Ni) satisfy the following basic assumptions for Ni G (0, to) (A1) means that the per capita birth rate is positive, (A2) indicates that it is a decreasing function of population density, (A3) implies that the net growth rate of the population is negative when population density is large, which prevents an unbounded population size. According to Cooke et al. (1999), we can adopt at least the following three types of birth functions Bi (B1) means that the birth process obeys Ricker's law. (B2) indicates that the birth process is of Beverton-Holt type. In the type...

Effects of Density on Population Growth

Population biologists are interested in monitoring the status of migratory songbirds in the United States. The warbling vireo is a neotropical migrant that overwinters in Mexico and flies northward into the United States during the summer to breed. Population analysis has shown a decline in the coastal California population of warbling vireos over the last twenty-two years. Biologists examined the level of nest productivity and adult survivorship as indices of the per capita birth and death rates in the population, and found that declines in the population were most likely related to low reproductive success and not low survival rates. In terms of population models, this finding would indicate a population decline resulting from the low birth rate leading to an overall decline in numbers. This example illustrates the importance of population analysis for conservation biology. By understanding the relative effects of birth and death on the warbling vireo population size, conservation...

And Laboratory Investigations

A limited number of patients have been described with isolated D-bifunctional protein deficiency (BPD), a disease with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The children show severe CNS involvement with profound hypotonia from birth onwards. There are minimal spontaneous movements and the neonatal reflexes are depressed. Feeding problems are usually prominent. In most children dysmorphic features are present with high forehead, large open fontanel, flat nasal bridge, low-set ears, high-arched palate, and micrognathia, similar to the facial characteristics seen in patients with generalized peroxiso-mal dysfunction. Some infants have macrocephaly. Joint contractures may be present. Most patients suffer from severe epilepsy from the beginning and seizures are often uncontrollable. Psychomotor development is severely delayed and most patients fail to acquire any significant developmental milestones. Some patients have ocular abnormalities, including glaucoma, optic atrophy,...

Reproductive System Of Female Mammals

Reproductive system, is to produce offspring. The role of the female is very complex She must produce gametes (sex cells) called ova (singular, ovum) or eggs, provide the site for the combination of ova with sperm from the male (fertilization), and nourish and protect a developing fetus during pregnancy. She also must provide for the delivery of offspring from her body to the outside. These functions are carried out by a group of organs or structures and a number of chemicals called hormones. The major organs of the system include ovaries, which produce ova and hormones uterine (Fallopian) tubes that transport the ovum and provide the site of fertilization the uterus, which houses the developing offspring the vagina, which receives the male penis and sperm during sexual intercourse and also functions as a birth canal and the external genitals. Hormones important to the function of the female reproductive system include estrogen and progesterone from the ovaries, and...

The Gynocentric Perspective

The gynocentric view of gender identity development posits that a feminine, rather than a bisexual or masculine orientation, predominates a child's perspective throughout development and that this perspective is evident prior to the phallic stage. Gynocentric theorists, like phallo-centric theorists, posit that a child's primary interest from birth is the mother. The mother satisfies the child's needs and desires and thus becomes an object of affection. Unlike phallocen-tric theorists, however, gynocentric theorists consider female identity development as the standard for normative development rather than merely a derivative of masculine identity development. Also, the role of the mother rather than that of the father is emphasized in development.

Human and Ecological Relevance of Club Mosses and Quillworts

Der with pills and tablets to prevent them from sticking to one another. The spore powder itself has been used for centuries in folk medicine, particularly for the treatment of urinary disorders and stomach upsets. Some Native Americans used it as a talcum powder for babies, snuffed it to arrest nosebleeds, and applied it following childbirth to staunch hemorrhaging. It was also sometimes used to stop bleeding from wounds.

Environmental Factors

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Vulva

Ionizing radiation kills rapidly proliferating cells, so it is a potent teratogen, producing virtually any type of birth defect depending upon the dose and stage of development of the conceptus at the time of exposure. Radiation from nuclear explosions is also teratogenic. Among women survivors pregnant at the time of the atomic bomb explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 28 aborted, 25 gave birth to children who died in their first year of life, and 25 had severe birth defects involving the central nervous system. Radiation is also a muta-genic agent and can lead to genetic alterations of germ cells and subsequent malformations. Hypoxia induces congenital malformations in a great variety of experimental animals. Whether the same is valid for humans remains to be seen. Although children born at relatively high altitudes are usually lighter in weight and smaller than those born near or at sea level, no increase in the incidence of congenital malformations has been noted. In addition,...

The role of unconscious phantasy

Klein placed great emphasis on the person's subjective experience over the impact of real events. A central tenet of her theory is the notion of unconscious phantasy. An unconscious phantasy is the mental representation of an experience or need. Klein maintained that from birth all our bodily impulses and emotional experiences have a mental representation in the form of phantasies, which colour our evolving inner life, that is, our internal world, and affect our experience of the external world. For example, one of my patients experienced any physical ill health, however minor, in a very paranoid manner. When she became ill, she often attributed the cause of her colds or flu, for example, to her careless manager who was not monitoring the office water supply or her partner who had prepared food that she believed was past its sell-by date. In other words, whenever she was ill the underlying phantasy that was activated was that she was being poisoned by another person rather than that...

Mental Retardation Syndromes

Adenylyl Cyclase Pathway

As we discussed in the first chapter, our great capacity for learning and remembering plays an enormous role in forming our human potential. Moreover, our personal experiences, where we have learned and remembered specific items and events, define us as individuals. These truths are nowhere more evident than when we consider individuals with pronounced learning and memory deficits, present from birth. In this chapter, we consider human mental retardation syndromes and their underlying molecular basis. In some intellectually satisfying instances, we will actually be able to tie mechanisms for these disorders back into fundamental mechanisms for synaptic plasticity and learning that we have already discussed.1

Physical Characteristics of Kangaroos

Bare Teats

As marsupials, kangaroos nurse their young (called joeys) in a pouch. Female kangaroos, half the size of males, have one-month gestations, which can be interrupted if a young is still suckling in the pouch or under adverse nutritional conditions. In these cases, the embryo goes into diapause, a form of suspended animation, until hormonal signals permit development to resume. The newborn is highly immature, pink and naked, resembles a slug, and weighs less than 0.03 ounces. Using its front legs and a good sense of smell, it crawls from the birth canal into the pouch

Female sex organs produce eggs receive sperm and nurture the embryo

Vagina Sperm

When a mammalian egg matures, it is released from the ovary directly into the body cavity. But the egg does not go far. Each ovary is enveloped by the undulating, fringed opening of an oviduct (also known as a Fallopian tube), which sweeps the egg into that tube (Figure 43.11). Fertilization takes place in the oviduct. Whether or not the egg is fertilized, cilia lining the oviduct propel it slowly toward the uterus, a muscular, thick-walled cavity shaped in humans like an upside-down pear. The uterus is where the embryo develops if the egg is fertilized. At the bottom, the uterus narrows into a necklike region called the cervix, which leads into the vagina. Sperm are ejaculated into the vagina during copulation, and the fetus passes through the vagina during birth. Sperm are deposited in the vagina during copulation.The vagina is also the birth canal. The neck of the uterus is the cervix which remains closed during pregnancy and dilates to allow childbirth. Sperm are deposited in the...

Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency

Chromosomal Perivascular Spaces

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a very rare disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It occurs with a prevalence of about 1 in 1.4 million births. The disease combines the features of metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysac-charidosis. It is also called mucosulfatidosis, Austin variant or variant O. Three different types of MSD have been described a neonatal form, an early-childhood form and a very rare juvenile form.

The External Genital Organs

External Female Genitalia

In both male and female, the region between the thighs, from the external genital organs to the anus, is the perineum. During childbirth, an incision may be made between the vagina and the anus to facilitate birth and prevent the tearing of tissue, a procedure called an episiotomy. (This procedure is actually a perineotomy, as the root episi o means vulva. )

Physical Characteristics of Reindeer

Gestation is about eight months long. The female leaves the herd to give birth to one calf, in May or June. The calf weighs up to twenty pounds. Mother and calf then rejoin the herd and the calf nurses for six months. A calf can mate when three years old. The life span of reindeer is up to fifteen years.

Scan Image Of A Normal Fetus At 12 Weeks

Week Fetus

At the end of the ninth month the skull has the largest circumference of all parts of the body, an important fact with regard to its passage through the birth canal. At the time of birth the weight of a normal fetus is 3000 to 3400 g its CRL is about 36 cm and its CHL is about 50 cm. Sexual characteristics are pronounced, and the testes should be in the scrotum.

Modeling Animal Populations

The dynamics of animal populations is affected by a wide variety of demographic factors, including the population birth rate, death rate, sex ratio, age structure, and rates of immigration and emigration. In order to understand the effects of these factors on a population, biologists use population models. A model is an abstract representation of a concrete idea. The representation created by the model boils the concrete idea into a few critical components. By building and examining population models, population analysts investigate the relative importance of different factors on the dynamics of a given population. When population biologists choose to focus specifically on the importance of birth and death in population dynamics, population models are simplified by temporarily ignoring the effects of immigration and emigration. In this case, the degree of change in the population between time intervals t and t+1 becomes Nt+1 - Nt B - D (equation 3). It is usually safe to assume that...

A vectordisease model

Consider a host in a bounded region ii C R (n 3) where a disease (malaria) is carried by a vector (mosquito). The host is divided into two classes, susceptible and infectious, whereas the vector population is divided into three classes, infectious, exposed, and susceptible. Suppose that the infection in the host confers negligible immunity and does not result death or isolation. All new-borns are susceptible. The host population is assumed to be stable, that is, the birth rate is constant and equal to the death rate. Moreover, the total host population is homogeneously distributed in i and both susceptible and infectious populations are allowed to diffuse inside i, however, there is no migration through di, the boundary of i. Summary. Competition between different strains of a micro-parasite which provide complete cross-protection and cross-immunity against each other selects for maximal basic replacement ratio if, in the absence of the disease, the host population is...

The pituitary is closely associated with the brain

Neurohormonal Regulation

When a woman is about to give birth, her posterior pituitary releases oxytocin, which stimulates the contractions of the uterus that deliver the baby. Oxytocin also brings about the flow of milk from the mother's breasts. The baby's suckling stimulates neurons in the mother, causing the secretion of oxytocin. Even the sight and sounds of her baby can cause a nursing mother to secrete oxytocin and release milk from her breasts.

MJB Stallmeyer and Gregg H Zoarski

Synovial Portion Joint

Sacroiliac joint pain is presumed to be caused by abnormal movement or malalignment of the SI joint. It may result from a variety of causes including spondyloarthropathy,4-6 crystal7 and pyogenic arthropathy,8 pelvic and sacral fractures,9 and diastasis resulting from trauma, pregnancy, or childbirth,10,11 but it also may be idiopathic.12-13

Life Cycles of Hyraxes

In all types of hyrax, mating season depends on species and habitat. Gestation is seven to eight months. All females in a family group of rock or bush hyraxes give birth within a few weeks of each other, each having one to four young which are nursed for five months. Tree hyraxes litter one or two young. The offspring of all species can mate at approximately sixteen months old. Females join rock or bush hyrax groups, and males leave by age 2.5 years. Tree hyrax offspring are solitary after weaning. Hyraxes can live for nine to twelve years.

F980 Nonorganic enuresis

A disorder characterized by involuntary voiding of urine, by day and by night, which is abnormal in relation to the individual's mental age, and which is not a consequence of a lack of bladder control due to any neurological disorder, to epileptic attacks, or to any structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The enuresis may have been present from birth or it may have arisen following a period of acquired bladder control. The enuresis may or may not be associated with a more widespread emotional or behavioural disorder.

In Vitro Fertilization The First Three Decades

The birth of the world's first baby born as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in July 1978 was by no means a chance event. Indeed, in the long evolution of reproduction, conception by IVF represents the end of a continuum which originated with childbirth wholly dependent on chance but which today is almost exclusively under human control. Today, nearly all forms of infertility can be treated by the various techniques of assisted reproduction, which are now responsible for the birth of around two million children worldwide.

The Rose Family Rosaceae

Rose Hip Calcium

After giving birth, the women of one western Native American tribe drank western black chokecherry juice to staunch the bleeding. Other tribes frequently made a tea from blackberry roots to control diarrhea. Five hundred Oneida Indians once cured themselves of dysentery with blackberry root tea, while many nearby white settlers, who refused to use Indian cures, died from the disease. Men of certain tribes used older canes of roses for arrow shafts (presumably after removing the prickles ). Wild blackberries, raspberries, salmonberries, thimbleberries, dewberries, juneberries, and strawberries all provided food for Native Americans and early settlers, and they are still eaten today, either fresh or in pies, jams, and jellies. A spiced blackberry cordial is still a favorite for summer complaints in southern Louisiana. Wild strawberries are considered by many to be distinctly superior in flavor to cultivated varieties.

Cardiovascular control in diving mammals conserves oxygen

The seal's diving reflex may seem like a unique adaptation, but it provides yet another example of how natural selection shapes biological traits that are widely shared among related species. Humans also have a diving reflex. It is controlled by the vagus nerve and the parasympathetic nervous system. When our faces are submerged, we experience a mild slowing of our heart rate. This reflex probably serves as a protective response during the birth process, when pressure on the umbilical cord can deprive the fetus of maternal oxygen before breathing can begin. There are many cases, how-

Clinical Correlates

Amputation Penis

The amniotic cavity is filled with a clear, watery fluid that is produced in part by amniotic cells but is derived primarily from maternal blood. The amount of fluid increases from approximately 30 ml at 10 weeks of gestation to 450 ml at 20 weeks to 800 to 1000 ml at 37 weeks. During the early months of pregnancy, the embryo is suspended by its umbilical cord in this fluid, which serves as a protective cushion. The fluid (a) absorbs jolts, (b) prevents adherence of the embryo to the amnion, and (c) allows for fetal movements. The volume of amniotic fluid is replaced every 3 hours. From the beginning of the fifth month, the fetus swallows its own amniotic fluid and it is estimated that it drinks about 400 ml a day, about half of the total amount. Fetal urine is added daily to the amniotic fluid in the fifth month, but this urine is mostly water, since the placenta is functioning as an exchange for metabolic wastes. During childbirth, the amnio-chorionic membrane forms a hydrostatic...

Endocrine Control of Pregnancy Parturition and Lactation

In mammals, fertilization normally occurs in the oviduct. When the fertilized embryo is implanted in the uterus, it is nourished as a result of the glandular and vascular buildup of the uterine wall. This buildup is maintained by estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum. As the embryo grows, it begins to produce a portion of the placenta the other portion is produced by the uterus. Cells in the embryonic chorion of the placenta produce cho-rionic gonadotropin, which rescues the corpus luteum and prevents its becoming deactivated by a prostaglandin produced by the ovary as a signal to deactivate the corpus luteum if fertilization has not occurred. During the latter stages of a pregnancy, the placenta takes over the production of estrogen and progesterone in some species. During pregnancy, chorionic gonadotropin will be present in the urine. During the last days of pregnancy, the ovary begins to produce a new hormone called relaxin. Relaxin is a very ancient hormone it...

The Uterine Environment

But in litter bearers (with as many as ten per birth), it is important that each embryo have sufficient space. In the pig, the uterus is V-shaped, with the ovaries at the tips. The two uterine horns form the sides of the V, and the body of the uterus and the birth canal consisting of the cervix and vagina are at the bottom. One uterine horn may be as long as 150 to 200 centimeters. The fetuses each occupy a segment of the uterus about 30 centimeters long thus they are arranged like peas in pods in the two horns. The embryos enter the uterus forty-eight hours after ovulation at the four-cell stage. Embryos cannot move by themselves, so the motility of the uterus helps intrauterine migration. Embryos gradually move down each uterine horn during the period from day two to day nine when they reach the body of the uterus. From day nine to day twelve, some of the embryos continue to move into the other uterine horn. Some embryos arise from one ovary implant in the uterine horn on the side...

Reproductive systems are distinguished by where the embryo develops

Reproductive Organs Monotreme

Viviparous animals retain the embryo within the mother's body during its early developmental stages. All mammals (except monotremes) are viviparous. There are examples of viviparity in all other vertebrate groups except the crocodiles, turtles, and birds. Even some sharks retain fertilized eggs in their bodies and give birth to free-living offspring. But there is a big difference between viviparity in mammals and in other species. Mammals have a specialized portion of the female reproductive tract, called the uterus or womb, that holds the embryo and interacts with it to produce a placenta, which enables the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood of the mother and that of the embryo. Non-mammalian viviparous animals simply retain fertilized eggs in the mother's body until they hatch. These embryos still receive nutrition from stores in the egg, so this reproductive adaptation is called ovoviviparity.

Trachoma Lymphogranuloma venereum

This is an acute, purulent papillary conjunctivitis that may affect neonates, children, and adults (swimming-pool conjunctivitis). Newborn children are infected during birth by pathogens colonizing the birth canal. Left untreated, a pannus may form as in trachoma, followed by corneal scarring. Laboratory diagnosis and therapy as in trachoma.

Microbiology of the Intestinal Tract

The human intestinal tract is inhabited from birth by a variety of microorganisms acquired, at first, from the mother. Later, organisms are carried in with food and water or introduced by hands and other objects placed in the mouth. Once inside, many cannot survive the acid conditions encountered in the stomach or the activity of digestive enzymes in the upper part of the intestinal tract. The small intestine and lower bowel, however, offer appropriate conditions for survival and multiplication of many microorganisms, primarily anaerobic species, that live there without harming their host.

The Life Cycle of Marsupials

The female has prepared the way for the fetal animal to move over her abdomen by vigorously licking the surface hairs from birth canal to pouch. Observers had long believed the licking laid down a scent trail of saliva for the fetus to follow to the entrance of the marsupium. Recent studies suggest the licking is performed primarily to cleanse the path to be followed by the fetus.

Monotreme and Marsupial Mammals

The more advanced mammals bear live young. One group, the pouched mammals, or marsupials, give birth to a premature, partially developed embryo. The embryo then climbs into the mother's pouch and fastens onto a nipple, where it finishes its development. Although this sequence makes the young more vulnerable than a placen-tal embryo, which is always carried in the mother, there are advantages. If conditions are bad, a marsupial mother can abort the baby without losing her own life and survive to breed again. A female marsupial can also carry one baby in the pouch and become pregnant with another, allowing a higher rate of reproduction.

The Life Cycles of Shrews

American short-tailed shrews live alone except when mating, which happens from late winter to the next September. Courtship is short because shrews are harsh, even to mates. Females give birth after two to three weeks to litters of four to nine young. Young leave after a month. As with other shrew species, males are mature in 1.5 months, females in three. The life span of these shrews is two to three years.

Oxytocin Stimulates the Contraction of Smooth Muscle in the Mammary Glands and Uterus

Oxytocin secretion is also stimulated by neural input from the female reproductive tract during childbirth. Cervical dilation before the beginning of labor stimulates stretch receptors in the cervix. Afferent nerve impulses pass through the CNS to oxytocin-secreting neurons. Oxytocin release stimulates the contraction of smooth muscle cells in the uterus during labor, aiding in the delivery of the newborn and placenta. The actions of oxytocin on the mammary glands and the female reproductive tract are discussed further in Chapter 39.

Delayed SIR Epidemic Models for Vector Diseases

The purpose of the chapter is to give a survey on the recent researches on SIR models with time delays for epidemics which spread in a human population via a vector. Based on the Hethcote model and Cooke's SIS model with a time delay, we introduce SIR models with time delays and a constant population size. Further, the SIR models are modified in such a way that the death rates for three population classes are different. Finally, the models are revised to assume that the birth rate is not independent of the total population size. For all models, we summarize the known mathematical results on stability of the equilibria and permanence. We also give some open problems and our conjectures on the threshold for an epidemic to occur.

Androgen And Prostate Growth


Walsh et al. examined a group of patients from Texas, and Imperato-McGinley studied a group of patients from a single village in the Dominican Republic, Salinas, where inbreeding was common (12,13). Both studies are experiments of nature observed by two insightful groups, and the anatomic features as well as the natural history of the condition are detailed in these papers. Both groups of patients had congenital deficiency in 5a-reductase activity. The children from the Dominican Republic were typically raised as girls from birth until puberty, when they underwent virilizing changes. These changes included scrotal rugation and hyperpigmentation, penile growth and function, increase in skeletal muscle mass, deepening voice, testicular descent, and development of the ability to ejaculate. Testicular biopsies revealed complete spermatogenesis and normal Leydig cells. These individuals demonstrated male psychosocial orientation. Despite these masculinizing changes, several other hallmark...

Ongenital and Perinatal Viral Infections

Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease

In contrast to these congenital (prenatal) infections, several other viruses may infect the fetus during or shortly after birth (Table 36-11). Such perinatal (alias neonatal, natal, or intrapartum) infections may be acquired during passage of the baby through an infected birth canal (herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus) or by contamination with feces (coxsackie B, echovirus 11). Disseminated neonatal herpes, disseminated varicella-zoster, and myocarditis of the newborn (Fig. 23-5) are all overwhelming generalized infections with high case-fatality rates these are usually primary maternal infections, and because

Pollution Effects of Chemicals

Levels of chlorinated compounds, such as dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in the Great Lakes have led to a sharp decline in populations of river otters and a variety of fish-eating birds, including the newly returned bald eagles. These chemicals are also the cause of deformed offspring, or eggs that never hatch. In Florida's Lake Apopka, a spill of chlorinated chemicals in 1980 led to a 90 percent drop in the birth rate of the lake's alligators. These are only a few examples of the detrimental effects of synthetic chemicals on various animals.

Preening More than Good Looks

Which is the selfless delivery of service from one animal to another. Whenever one observes a parent grooming its young, the conclusion is that the motive behind the act is to tend to the health of the infant or young, which promotes the proliferation of the species. Nearly all mammals and many species of birds display this behavior. With marsupial births, the young of the Virginia opossum are in a semiembryonic state. The mother licks the embryon at birth so that the membrane encasing it will break. She then licks a trail from the birth canal to the pouch so that the neonate, using its developed olfactory senses, can find its way to the pouch without further aid by the mother. In altricial and semialtricial placental mammals, the young are usually born naked or with little fur. Most of these animal types, such as cats, dogs, mice, shrew, rats, and hamsters, lick the newborn to remove the birth membrane, break the umbilical cord, and eat the placenta after birth. They lick the newborn...

Predicting Total Body Fat from Skinfold Thicknesses

Adult Tricep Skinfold Chart

Figure 4.5 Standard body mass index curves from birth to 20 years for boys (a, above) and girls (b, opposite). Copyright Child Growth Foundation. Reproduced by permission. Copies of the CGF BMI charts are available from Harlow Printing, Maxwell Street, South Shileds NE33 4PU, UK Figure 4.5 Standard body mass index curves from birth to 20 years for boys (a, above) and girls (b, opposite). Copyright Child Growth Foundation. Reproduced by permission. Copies of the CGF BMI charts are available from Harlow Printing, Maxwell Street, South Shileds NE33 4PU, UK

The Northern Fur Seal

Fur seals go into estrus only five days after giving birth. Any resulting pregnancy enters an embryonic diapause, or delayed implantation, until the newborn seal is weaned the following fall. The actual period when female seals are receptive is brief, usually only twenty-four hours.

The Female Bony Pelvis

The female bony pelvis is an important consideration in childbirth. a. Several studies have been concerned with the spatial relationships of the female bony pelvis. One of the most extensive is the Caldwell-Moloy Classification of Female Pelvis. This study categorizes female pelvis by shape. It illustrates those types that are better and those that are less well suited for childbirth. b. Just before childbirth, the phenomenon of relaxation occurs. In this phenomenon, the ligaments of the bony pelvis and perineum become quite stretchable. This increases the diameters of the birth canal.

Case Study for Chapter

A 12-month-old baby is brought to a pediatrician's office because the parents are concerned about a recurrent cough and frequent foul-smelling stools. The doctor has followed the child from birth and notices that the baby's weight has remained below the normal range. A chest X-ray reveals hyperinflation consistent with the obstruction of small airways.

Prolactin Regulates the Synthesis of Milk

Lactation is the final phase of the process of human reproduction. During pregnancy, alveolar cells of the mammary glands develop the capacity to synthesize milk in response to stimulation by a variety of steroid and pep-tide hormones. Milk synthesis by these cells begins shortly after childbirth. To continue to synthesize milk, these cells must be stimulated periodically by prolactin (PRL), and this is thought to be the main physiological function of PRL in the human female. What role, if any, PRL has in the human male is unclear. It is known to have some supportive effect on the action of androgenic hormones on the male reproductive tract, but whether this is an important physiological function of PRL is not established.

The Time Specific Approach

Demographers usually want to determine whether the production of new offspring (natality) balances the losses attributable to mortality. To accomplish this, they construct a life table, which is a chart with several columns and rows. Each row represents a different age of the cohort, from birth to death. The columns show the survival and fecundity of the cohort. By recalculating the survivorship and fecundity information, demographers can compute several interesting as

Defining Obesity in Children and Adolescents

An expert working group of the International Obesity Task Force investigated this issue and concluded that BMI-for-age, based on a redefined international reference population from 5 to 18 years, was a reasonable index of adiposity and could be used for population studies. They identified a novel approach to determine cut-off values that classify children as overweight or obese using percentiles that correlate to the standard cut-off points for BMI in adults (34). WHO is also in the process of developing a new growth reference for infants and children from birth to 5 years.

Some cancers are caused by viruses

Hepatitis B, a liver disease that affects people all over the world, is caused by the hepatitis B virus, which contaminates blood or is carried from mother to child during birth. The viral infection can be long-lasting and may flare up numerous times. The hepatitis B virus is associated with liver cancer, especially in Asia and Africa, where millions of people are infected. But it does not cause cancer by itself. Some gene mutations that are necessary for tumor formation occur in the infected cells of Asians and Africans, although apparently not in those of Europeans and North Americans.

Physiologic Factors Affecting Resistance

There are few striking differences in the susceptibility of males and females to viral infections, except in the obvious instances of viruses with a predilection for tissues such as testis, ovaries, or mammary glands Pregnancy significantly increases the likelihood of severe disease following infection with certain viruses, an effect that was very pronounced in smallpox and is also seen in infections with hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis E virus. Latent herpesvirus infections are often reactivated during pregnancy, contaminating the birth canal and leading to infection of the newborn.

Physical Characteristics of Polar Bears

Mating takes place in late March to late May. This is the only time that the male is with the female. Other than family groups of females with their cubs, polar bears are solitary. Pregnant females dig snow or earth dens in which they will give birth to one to three cubs in late November to early January. The mother's milk is very rich, with an average fat content of 33 percent. The cubs, which weigh 1 to 1.5 pounds at birth, grow quickly and weigh 22 to 33 pounds when they emerge from the den with their mother in late February to early May. Polar bear cubs usually leave their mother at 2.5 years of age, at which time the mother is ready to breed again. Therefore, the female usually gives birth every third year.

Maternal Care Versus Paternal Care

In single-parent species, whether it is the mother or father who becomes the caretaking parent depends, to a great extent, on parental certainty. In viviparous species (species that give birth to live young rather than lay eggs) the parent that gives birth is, for certain, one of the two genetic parents, and is therefore the parent most likely to care for the young if they need it. With rare exception, that means that mothers become the caretaking parent in viviparous species. In egg-laying (oviparous) species, parental certainty depends on whether fertilization was internal (as in birds and many invertebrates) or external (as in most fishes and amphibians). If fertilization is internal, then again, it is only the mother who is certain to be a genetic parent of the eggs she lays, and who is therefore most likely to take on the role of caretaker when only a single caretaker is needed. If, on the other hand, fertilization is external, then both parents are equally likely to be the...

Conclusions And Future Considerations

Tan SL, Royston P, Campbell S, et al. Cumulative conception and live birth rates after in vitro fertilization. Lancet 1992 339 1390-1394. 45. Remohi J, Gartner B, Gallardo E, Yalil S, Simon C, Pellicer A. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation. Fertil Steril 1997 67 717-723.

Regulating the Reproductive Cycle

The eight hormones known to be released from the hypophysis gland are vasopressin (the anti-diuretic hormone ), oxytocin, prolactin, growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Vasopressin is released in response to low water levels in the blood it stimulates the kidneys to retain water, reduce urine output, and increase blood pressure until blood water levels return to normal, upon which it will no longer be produced. Oxytocin causes muscular contractions in the uterus during childbirth and in the breast for the secretion of milk for an infant. Prolactin is present in males and females, but it is functional only in females. It stimulates milk production from fat deposits in the breast. Growth hormone causes growth in children it is present in adults, but contributes only to the control of metabolic rate. Thyrotropin stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and secrete various hormones that control...

Cattle Buffalo And Bison

All are herbivores, dependent solely on plant material for their nutrition. Furthermore, they are ruminants, having the ability to rapidly ingest their food and to subsequently regurgitate and rechew it. The first of their four stomach compartments, the rumen, is used for microbial fermentation of plant material, some of which would not otherwise be digestible. All the animals are four-footed and have split hooves. Both male and female have horns, except for those with a genetic variation leading to polled (hornless) animals. They have a keen sense of smell, and good sight and hearing. They are herd animals and generally produce a single offspring annually when nutritionally or metabolically stressed, they may calve every other year. They usually give birth in the spring, except for intensively managed cattle, which can do so year-round.

Comment About Lymphoid Tissues

The lymphocyte is an important type of white blood cell that is also found in the interspaces of a tissue called lymphoid (or lymphatic) tissue. Lymphocytes signal other types of white blood cells to phagocytize (engulf) foreign materials found within the body. The lymphoid tissues are particularly important in individuals from birth until about 15 years of age. The mass of lymphoid tissue found in the body of a 12-year-old is about twice the mass found in a full-grown adult. (Between 6 and 15 years of age, the immune system of the blood becomes the primary protector of the body from disease.)

Methodological deficiencies

The failure to find correlation between the use of EFM and improvement in outcome relate in part to the use of outcome measures that may not be related to hypoxia or neurological injury during labor. Indeed, most of the studies are limited to immediate measures of outcome such as death, requirement for intensive care support, seizures or acidosis. In these studies, there was no assurance that the fetus was neurologically normal at the outset of monitoring, neither were other causes of adverse outcome in the newborn during labor or at delivery considered, including such factors as birth trauma, sepsis, drug depression, or inadequate resuscitation. These obvious influences on neonatal outcome would, however, not be expected to be associated with specific FHR abnormalities.

The core of lifehistory theory

If the abundance of a species does not depend on the number of offspring, why are there such large differences between species in reproductive styles That such differences exist is obvious. The mathematical biologist A.J. Lotka distinguished between the 'lavish type' and the 'economical type' (Lotka 1924). Many marine animals, including Darwin's slug, obviously belong to the first type, whereas humans, with their low birth rate and long lifespan, are an example of the second type. Also within relatively homogeneous groups of organisms large differences between species may exist. For example, in birds clutch size varies from one egg in petrels and condors up to 20 eggs in pheasants and partridges. Likewise, among lizards the number of eggs laid in a season varies per species from 2 to 20. An even more extreme variation may be observed among plant species. This diversity in reproductive output across species is usually positively correlated with juvenile mortality rate and negatively...

Examine Dose Response Gradients

For example, assume we are evaluating the relationship between oral contraceptive use and the development of breast cancer. If the hypothesis suggests that dose be defined by cumulative amount of unopposed estrogen, we would examine specific formulations of oral contraception and the duration of time over which those formulations were used. If the hypothesis concerns the suppression of ovulation, then the total number of months of use might be relevant. If the hypothesis concerned a permanent change in breast tissue brought about by oral contraceptive use prior to first childbirth, we would construct a different dose measure, one that is specific to the interval between becoming sexually active and first pregnancy.

Using Epidural Pain Management

This type of pain management is used for postoperative pain, labor pain, and cancer pain. The most serious adverse reaction associated with the administration of narcotics by the epidural route is respiratory depression. The patient may also experience sedation, confusion, nausea, pruritus, or urinary retention. Fentanyl is increasingly used as an alternative to morphine sulfate because patients experience fewer adverse reactions.

Cognitive Development

According to Piaget, the sensorimotor stage lasts from birth until about age 2. During this period, children are egocentric and fail to distinguish between themselves and outer reality. They have little ability to use language or symbolic representations and therefore are unable to exhibit object permanence, the awareness that people or objects continue to exist when they are not in sight.

Immune Privilege at the Maternal Fetal Interface

Immune deviation may also contribute to the immune privilege of the allogeneic fetus. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-P is the critical cytokine that promotes the development of tolerizing APCs in the eye and it appears to play a similar role at the maternal fetal interface. The TGF-p content of seminal plasma is among the highest of any biological fluids 31 . Moreover, the TGF-P level in uterine luminal fluid rises over threefold immediately following insemination 32 . Exposure to semen promotes the generation of tolerance to the male-specific histocompatibility antigen, which can be demonstrated by prolonged survival of male skin grafts transplanted to pregnant female recipients 33, 34 . Moreover, immunization with paternal cells in the presence of semen induces tolerance to paternal MHC class I antigens 35 . Studies indicate that the tolerance to paternal MHC antigens in pregnant mice is transient and disappears shortly after parturition 36 . Anecdotal evidence suggests that a...

Chapter Blocks Title

XV 000-099 Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (000-099) 010- Oedema, proteinuria and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, childbirth and 016 the puerperium P05-P08 Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal growth P10-P15 Birth trauma

American Pronghorns

The pronghorn, or American antelope, can sprint sixty miles per hour and run at forty miles per hour. Pronghorns are fast almost from birth. For example, two-day-old pronghorns can outrun humans. Pronghorns are the only living members of the artiodactyl sub-family Antilo-capridae, related to antelope. They are not true antelope and reportedly are almost unchanged from ancestors of two million years ago.

Michael Bader

Gene-targeting technology allows the planned alteration of any gene in the mouse genome and has been very successfully employed to study the function of numerous gene products in a complete animal. The method includes the design of a suitable targeting construct, its transfec-tion into pluripotential embryonic stem cells, selection for cells in which one allele of the endogenous gene has been exchanged for the construct by homologous recombination, and the transfer of these cells into host blastocysts. The blastocysts are then transferred into the uterus of a pseudopregnant foster mother giving birth to chimeras, which are bred to yield heterozygous and finally homozygous mutant mice for the targeted gene.


Horizontal CMV transmission can occur (1) during birth by direct contact with virus-containing cervical or vaginal secretions, (2) by ingestion of breast milk, (3) by direct contact with saliva, (4) by contact with blood products or upon receiving transplanted tissues, and (5) by sexual transmission (56). Interestingly, the incidence of CMV infections in the United States is not uniform over time, but instead shows peak increases within distinct age groups (57). These increases are seen during the first few months of life (from maternal secretions or breast milk), during the toddler years (from saliva of family members and other children), during the teenage years (from intimate kissing), and during young adulthood (from sexual transmission). Worldwide, CMV infection and seroprevalence is associated with age, geographic location, and socioeconomic status (SES) (57). In developed countries, 40-60 of adults in middle to upper level SES are CMV seropositive compared to more than 80 among...

Birth in Cattle

The birth of a calf, relatively representative of the births of artiodactyls, is simpler than that of primates. The first signal of readiness to calve is the passage of mucus and a bloody discharge. After this, the pregnant cow lays down on the ground. Within an hour or two, she gives birth to her calf or calves. In normal birth, each calf is delivered in either a front or a rear presentation. Most cows deliver their calves front end first (front presentation). Initially, a dark bulge, the amniotic sac (water bag), is seen in the birth canal. This is soon followed by the tips of the calf's hooves, toes down. These hooves are soft so that they do not injure the mother during the birthing process. However, they harden quickly. A front presentation calf is born in the diver position, with its front legs stretched out and its head between them. The legs protrude about a foot, and then the head comes out, nose first. The head is soon followed by the shoulders, and then the rest of the calf...

Types of Shark Birth

The Complete Book of Foaling An Illustrated Guide for the Foaling Attendant. New York Howell Book House, 1993. A guidebook for horse breeders. Covers the final three weeks of a horse's pregnancy through the first twelve hours of the newborn foal's life, with detailed discussion of the birthing process. Prine, Virginia Bender. How Puppies Are Born An Illustrated Guide on the Whelping and Care of Puppies. New York Howell Book House, 1975. A guidebook for dog breeders, with helpful illustrations of the canine birth process.


Human listeriosis is typically acquired through ingestion of contaminated food but other modes of transmission occur. These include transmission from mother to child transplacentally or through an infected birth canal and cross-infection in neonatal nurseries (Farber et al. 1992 Colodner et al. 2003). Contaminated mineral oil used for bathing infants was the source of one outbreak (Schuchat et al. 1991). Localized cutaneous infections have occurred in veterinarians and farmers after direct contact with aborted calves and infected poultry.


In reptiles, even though the courtship behavior is not very complex, bobbing, circling, and marking of territory is noticed. Snakes such as the crotalids, including vipers and rattlesnakes, have a mutual dancelike ritual for courtship. As the snakes circle each other, they rear up facing one another and intertwine together for copulation. Most snakes of the Crotalidea family give birth to living young from eggs that hatched inside the mother's body. The colubrids, such as the boomslangs and kingsnakes, and elapids, such as the cobras, have a nuptial procedure where the male rubs his lower jaw along the back of the female in an attempt to stimulate her. It is conjectured that perhaps this behavior also stimulates him and all the other males in the matrix group. A male snake copulates by throwing coils round the female and bringing their cloacas into juxtaposition. However, sometimes they simply lie close without the retaining coils. They may use a branch or similar object to maintain a...

Genetic regulators

The susceptibility and response of a reservoir host to infection with a zoonotic agent is largely determined by genetics 10 . Perhaps the most fundamental example of this is the coevolved pattern of asymptomatic, chronic infection and long-term viral shedding characteristic of hantavirus-host systems. This close co-adaptation is highly specific, in some cases even to the level of subspecies. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) has been divided into 12 geographically restricted subspecies in North America 20 . Black Creek Canal hantavirus is found only in association with S. h. spadycipygus, which is restricted to extreme southern Florida. Muleshoe hantavirus appears to be associated with S. h. texianus which occurs in eastern and central Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Laguna Negra hantavirus is found only in association with populations of Calomys laucha in Paraguay, Bolivia, and N. Argentina 21, 35, 40 . A disjunct population of the same species in central Argentina appears to be free...

Social Insects

The population variables described in the preceding section change as a result of variable reproduction, movement, and death of individuals. These individual contributions to population change are integrated as three population processes natality (birth rate), mortality (death rate), and dispersal (rate of movement of individuals into or out of the population). For example, density can increase as a result of increased birth rate, immigration, or both frequencies of various alleles change as a result of differential reproduction, survival, and dispersal. The rate of change in these processes determines the rate of population change, described in the next chapter. Therefore, these processes are fundamental to understanding population responses to changing environmental conditions. Natality is the population birth rate (i.e., the per capita production of new individuals per unit time). Realized natality is a variable that approaches potential natality the maximum reproductive capacity...


Nique causes the nucleus of the embryonic cell to enter the egg cytoplasm. The resulting cell acts like a zygote, forming an embryo, which can be implanted into a foster mother, who ultimately gives birth to a normal monkey. Each of the re 19.4 A Clone and Her Offspring In 1996,the experimental procedure described here produced the first cloned mammal, a Dorset sheep named Dolly. Dolly died in 2003 from lung disease, but in her lifetime she mated and gave birth to a normal offspring (the lamb on the right in the photo), proving the genetic viability of cloned mammals.

Sexism and Racism

While the definition of women is differently constructed for white women and women of color, gender is nonetheless the salient mechanism through which each group is subordinated (West & Zimmerman, 1987, as cited in Hurtado, 1994). White men need white women in ways that they do not need women of color because women of color cannot fulfill white men's need for racially pure offspring. White middle-class women are groomed from birth to be the lovers, mothers, and partners (however unequal) of white men because of the economic and social benefits attached to these roles. Upper and middle-class white women are supposed to be the biological bearers of those members of the next generation who will inherit positions of power in society. They are thus seduced into accepting subservient roles that meet the material needs of white men. Women of color, in contrast, are groomed from birth to be primarily the lovers, mothers, and partners (however unequal) of men of color, who are also oppressed...


A pediatrician treats children from birth through adolescence (age 18). The office visits are frequent and of relatively short duration in the exam room, but frequently involve a protracted period of time in the waiting room.This is a highvolume specialty, and the practice is almost always composed of two or more physicians. It is rare to find more than three pediatricians working in the same office, although a busy practice may staff a second or third office.

Horses And Zebras

Depending on the age, female horses are called fillies and mares, and males are colts, stallions, and geldings. Horses attain sexual maturity at two to three years old and usually produce a single foal after eleven months of gestation. Multiple births are rare, with twins occurring on average once per 1,500 births. Foals are able to stand within an hour of birth. Stallions fight while competing for mares, and one stallion may mate with several mares during a season. Mares usually come into heat one week after giving birth. Foals are weaned before they are one year old.

Exercises Lesson

When the female bony pelvis relaxes for childbirth, the ligaments of the d_s of the birth canal. Initially after childbirth, the mammary gland secretes_m, consisting During its passage through the birth canal, the newborn makes two partial r_s to accommodate the diameters of the relaxed bony pelvis. In natural childbirth, there are several_xes occurring normally at

Placental Mammals

Unlike marsupials, placentals must carry the embryo in their womb through their full development. To allow this, the embryo is nourished by an extra membrane surrounding it in the womb. This membrane, the placenta, is shed when the baby is born and is part of the afterbirth. This mode of

Marsupial Facts

Marsupials are often thought of as pouched mammals. Their embryo develops inside the uterus but, unlike placental mammals, the marsupial is born very early in its development. It completes its embryonic development outside the mother's body, attached to teats of abdominal mammary glands, which are often but not always enclosed in a pouch called the marsupium. The helpless embryonic form has forelimbs that are strong enough to climb from the birth canal to the mother's nipples, where it grabs on and nurses for weeks or months depending on the species.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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