Chicken Coop Plans
Individual plants differ in their nutritional quality for a number of reasons, including soil fertility. Ohmart et al. (1985) reported that Eucalyptus blakelyi subjected to different N fertilization levels significantly affected fecundity of Paropsis atomaria, a chrysomelid beetle. An increase in foliar N from 1.5 to 4.0 increased the number of eggs laid by 500 and the rate of egg production by 400 . Similarly, Blumberg et al. (1997) reported that arthropod abundances were higher in plots receiving inorganic N (granular ammonium nitrate, rye grass cover crop) than in plots receiving organic N (crimson clover, Trifolium incarna-tum, cover crop). However, the effects of plant fertilization experiments have been inconsistent, perhaps reflecting differences among plant species in their allocation of N to nutritive versus nonnutritive compounds or differences in plant or insect responses to other factors (Kyto et al. 1996, G. Waring and Cobb 1992).
Vaccination is another alternative being assessed in several eradication programs. Several vaccine candidates including live, avirulent Typhimurium (40,41), inactivated Enteritidis phage type 4 (42), and genetically defined Enteritidis (43), to name just a few, have been evaluated for efficacy in preventing salmonellae colonization of chicks. Vaccination with avirulent Typhimurium induced protection against intestinal, visceral, reproductive tract, and egg colonization, and protection was shown to last at least 11 months (41). Reports also indicate that vaccination also prevented transmission of both Typhimurium and Enteritidis into eggs without affecting egg production (41). Chicks immunized with the genetically defined Enteritidis vaccine (43) demonstrated a significant reduction in colonization of spleen, liver, ovaries, and ceca. There was also a marked decrease in fecal shedding of salmonellae in the vaccine group.
When the male white-crown arrives at his breeding grounds in central Alaska, he chooses a nesting territory, attacks any male territorial intruders, and attempts to attract a mate with his constant singing. Each female chooses a mate and helps him defend the nesting site. In the next few days she feeds to gain nutrients for egg production, and her estrogen levels rise rapidly, stimulating her to solicit mating. Once the eggs are laid, the gonads of both birds begin to atrophy, estrogen and testosterone levels decline, and prolactin levels increase and stimulate feeding of the young. As the gonads atrophy, the birds become less aggressive and the male stops singing.
It is also widely appreciated that variation in a given environmental variable might also influence responses to another. The simultaneous effects of two or more variables on survival, development, and egg production have been the subject of many studies, especially where insect pest species are concerned (Andrewartha and Birch 1954 Messenger 1959). Perhaps the most famous of these kinds of studies are those that were undertaken by Park, where the effect of environmental variation in insect performance was not only examined for single Tribolium (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) species, but also for the outcome of interactions between T. confusum and T. castaneum (Park 1962). Other studies of responses to two or more simultaneously varying parameters include several on diapause induction and termination (Denlinger 2002), and on the effects of temperature and hypoxia on development (e.g. Frazier et al. 2001).
Tsetse flies (Glossinidae) are vectors of African sleeping sickness disease in humans and animals. Microorganisms associated with these flies, which are blood feeders, are responsible for nutrients not found in their restricted diet. Different microorganisms have been found in the midgut, hemolymph, fat body, and ovaries. Until molecular techniques were used, their taxonomic status was unresolved (Aksoy 2000). Now we know that at least three different microorganisms are present the primary (P) symbiont, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, is an intracellular symbiont residing in specialized epithelial cells that form a special U-shaped organ (bacteriome) in the anterior gut. The secondary gut symbiont, Sodalis glossinidius, is present in midgut cells. The third, Wolbachia, is found in reproductive tissues. Tsetse females are viviparous, retaining each egg within the uterus where it hatches. The larva matures there and is born as a fully developed third-instar larva. During its intrauterine...
The chicken is the most widely raised of agricultural animals. It is estimated that over eight billion chickens are produced annually in the world for both meat and egg production. The chicken was domesticated over four thousand years ago in southeast Asia. The general history of domesticated fowl is not very clear. It appears that the world's chicken population was developed from at least four different wild jungle fowl. Crossbreeding allowed for the introduction of new breeds that continued to develop and change. Today's domesticated birds all come from the Asi There are three distinct categories of domesticated chickens meat, egg, and dual purpose. The meat-producing bird is referred to as the broiler breed, and it was developed to be a very fast-growing, quickly maturing, large-bodied bird. The purebred broiler breed chicken is usually crossbred with another breed of chicken to produce an even faster-growing bird. The broiler breed does not lay well and is seldom used as a farm...
Emerging infectious diseases the publics view of the problem and what should be expected from the public health
One of the reasons for this disparity has been the actual increase in the number of emerging and reemerging infections that have surfaced during the last 10 years (Box 1). Examples include newly recognized diseases such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Nipah and Hendra viral diseases, the introduction and spread of West Nile virus infection in North America, and intermittent outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in parts of Africa. Other major concerns include the increasing problems created by antimicrobial resistance and the continued threat of bioterrorism. In 2003 alone, a newly recognized coronavirus spread across five continents sickening more than 8,000 people and causing 774 deaths from a new disease designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 4 , the exotic animal trade resulted in the first cases of human monkeypox in the Western hemisphere 5 , and highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus killed humans and...
Duction is practiced by almost every kind of living thing. It confers tremendous evolutionary advantage on a species by producing a new individual with the genetic characteristics of two parents but with unique combinations of features that may make the offspring more successful than either parent. The advantage of having separate sexes for reproduction is that it permits the development of extremely specialized reproductive organs for the very different requirements of sperm or egg production, and, when needed, intra-uterine support for the embryo. Though some organisms show great sexual flexibility, higher animals and plants have tended toward sexual stability, probably because of the high cost of sex reversal for organisms with highly specialized sexual structures.
Did wild birds spread H5N1 across much of Eastern Asia Let us first consider the other likely culprit - humans. The poultry industry is a huge integrated industry in Asia, with a number of firms having branches in China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia. Do people, poultry or fomites move viruses between these countries In previous highly pathogenic outbreaks of H5 and H7 in multiple countries the spread was directly or indirectly attributable to humans. If humans were the spreaders in Asia we might expect that a single genotype might dominate. The above considerations indicate that indeed the Z genotype is dominant. However, while the Z genotype is dominant it is not the only genotype present in Asia. It is noteworthy that the dominant genotype in Indonesia is different from that in Vietnam and Thailand (unpublished), arguing against spread by humans to the entire region. The actual dates of emergence of H5N1 in various countries have not been clarified the official dates of January...
The couple has heard that Down syndrome results from a rare chance mistake in egg production and therefore decide that they stand only a low chance of having such a child. They decide to have children. Their first child is unaffected, but the next conception aborts spontaneously (a miscarriage), and their second child is born with Down syndrome. Was this a coincidence, or is it possible that there is a connection between the genetic makeup of the man and that of his grandmother that led to their both having Down syndrome children Was the spontaneous abortion significant What tests might be necessary to investigate this situation The analysis of such questions is the topic of this chapter.
Spawning migrations to freshwater last from late winter through early summer, occurring later in the year at higher latitudes. Although it matures late in life, the Atlantic sturgeon is highly fecund, with total egg production proportional to its body size (a 9-foot, 245-pound female, about 30 years old, produced 61 pounds of roe). Nevertheless, it has a low reproduction rate, as females spawn only once every 3 to 5 years, and juvenile mortality is high. Furthermore, females do not mature until ages 7 to 10 in the southern part of their range and ages 22 to 28 in the most northern part of their range these late maturations complicate management efforts, especially because the fish are at sea for long periods, until they return to natal waters to spawn.
Roundworms are cylindrical worms with bilateral symmetry. Most species have two sexes, the female being a copious egg producer. These ova hatch into larval forms that go through several stages and finally develop into adults. In some instances, the eggs of these worms are infective for humans when swallowed. In the intestinal tract they develop into adults and produce local symptoms of disease. In other cases, the larval form, which develops in soil, is infective when it penetrates the skin and is carried through the body, finding its way finally into the intestinal tract where the adults develop. In the case of Trichinella (the agent of trichinosis), the larvae are ingested in infected meat, but penetrate beyond the bowel and become encysted in muscle tissue. One group of roundworms, the flaria, are carried by arthropods and enter the body by way of an insect bite. (See table 32.2.)
This was an important discovery because although maize is the Southeast's main poultry feed, it grows poorly there and the local poultry industry has to import maize from the Midwestern states. Some observers now conclude that as transportation costs increase, locally grown pearl millet could soon replace the imported maize as the poultry feed of choice. Several other areas of the country where maize is difficult to grow seem likely to switch over as well.
Histoplasmosis is also acquired by the airborne route, often after exposure to bird or bat droppings. Patients who are spelunkers, who have worked in old barns or chicken coops, or who have been involved in renovating old homes are at particular risk. Histo-plasmosis can cause a range of syndromes in the immunocompetent host, from asymptomatic infection to nonspecific flulike illness to frank pneumonia. In most cases, recovery will be complete, often without specific therapy. Infection can cause severe pneumonia if the inoculum is high and can progress to chronic pulmonary infection, particularly in patients with preexisting lung disease. Rarely, progressive fibrosis can develop, leading to mediastinal fibrosis and potentially compromising the esophagus, airways, or the superior vena cava and other blood vessels. Progressive, disseminated histoplasmosis can occur, especially in infants and immunocompromised adults. Patients with defective cell-mediated immunity, especially those with...
Cimex lectularius (family Cimicidae), the bedbug, occurs worldwide. Now rare in central Europe, it is therefore often not considered when diagnosing skin lesions. Bedbugs live on human blood. Especially in repeated infestations, their bites induce hemorrhagic or urticarial-papulous reactions, often visible as lesions arranged in groups or rows. The bugs are about 3-4 mm long, with dorsoventrally flattened bodies, greatly reduced wings and a bloodsucking proboscis that can be folded back ventrally. Development from the egg through five larval stages to the adults takes about one and a half months under suitable conditions, but can be extended to as long as one year. Bedbugs require several blood meals during development and egg production. Their ability to starve for as long as a year means they can persist for long periods in rooms, hiding by day (under mattresses, behind furniture, in cracks in the walls, etc.) and emerging at night questing for a blood meal. Diagnosis skin lesions...
In conclusion, PRA models can make important contributions to food safety improvement programs, such as HACCP systems. HACCP is required of the meat and poultry industry by the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires seafood suppliers to use HACCP. The FDA requires that juice producers either pasteurize their juice or use another process to reduce pathogens by 5 logs (for each 100,000 initial organisms, only 1 remains after the process). If neither treatment is used, the juice must contain a warning label WARNING This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria which can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems (p. 37043, Federal Register, July 8, 1998).
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