Getting a Cat to Stop Spraying Inside

Cat Spray No More

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Cat Spray No More Summary


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I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Domestic Cats

Most authorities consider Felis sylvestris lybica, a North African wildcat, the probable ancestor of modern domestic cats. In agricultural communities whose granaries attracted rats and mice, cat remains have been found associated with human artifacts as far back as 5000 b.c.e. Actual domestication is depicted in 1600 b.c.e. Egyptian tomb paintings showing cats sheltered under their owner's chair eating fish or gnawing bones in one case, the cat is tied to the chair leg by a ribbon. Cat lovers enjoy believing that cats voluntarily joined human settlements, but Egyptians had been taming wild animals for more than a thousand years and probably deliberately adopted and tamed a tractable species of wildcat. Cats became important symbols of Egyptian gods. Male cats represented the sun god Ra, daily battling the serpent of darkness as a tomcat. Females signified the mother goddess Bastet, symbolizing beauty, fertility, and motherhood. In contrast, during the Middle Ages Christians...

The Spinal Cord Can Produce Basic Locomotor Actions

Studies in experimental animals, mostly cats, have demonstrated that the spinal cord contains the capability for generating basic locomotor movements. This neural circuitry, called a central pattern generator, can produce the alternating contraction of limb flexors and extensors that is needed for walking. It has been shown experimentally that application of an excitatory amino acid like glutamate to the spinal cord produces rhythmic action potentials in motor neurons. Each limb has its own pattern generator, and the actions of different limbs are then coordinated. The normal strategy for generating basic locomotion engages central pattern generators and uses both sensory feedback


Most strains of B. cereus and other Bacillus species are capable of elaborating a wide range of extracellular metabolites, primarily during the exponential growth phrase. These metabolites include a number of toxins including virulence factors demonstrated on the basis of their behavior in animal models and tissue culture or cell lines. The various activities of these have been summarized (5). Human feeding studies and results collected on experimental animals such as dogs and cats as well as rhesus monkeys using whole cell cultures or filtrates have shown that diarrhea can be induced and, therefore, have established B. cereus as a foodborne pathogen. Two of a variety of metabolites, the diarrheal and emetic toxins, have been established as separate toxic moieties, which present different clinical profiles. However, they show clinical manifestations, which are demonstrated by other bacterial toxins as shown in Table 1.

Need For Objective Assessment Of Epidemiologic Evidence

The need to strive for impartiality in the evaluation of evidence must be stressed, partly because there are strong forces encouraging subjectivity. Among the most vital, exciting aspects of epidemiology are its value in understanding how the world we live in operates to affect health and the applicability of epidemiologic evidence to policy. Epidemiologic research bears on the foods we eat, the medications we take, our physical activity levels, and the most intimate aspects of our sexual behavior, emotional ties, and whether there are health benefits to having pets. Putting aside the scholarly arguments made in this book, I am sure every reader knows something about what is beneficial and harmful, and it is difficult to overcome such insights with scientific evidence. (I don't need epidemio-logic research to convince me that there are profound health benefits from owning pet dogs, and I am equally certain that pet cats are lacking in such value.) Epidemiologic evidence bearing on...

Bacterial Infections and Antibiotic Resistance

That would be prevented by a fully functioning immune system. Viruses similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause related immunodeficiency diseases and leukemias or anemias in animals as well, including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in cats or murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) in mice. Studying these related viruses has been very important in scientists' understanding of HIV.

Species Specialization

For example, a panda is a very specialized feeder, eating mainly bamboo. If a pest is introduced into the environment that destroys bamboo, the panda will probably starve, being unable to switch to another food source. On the other hand, the coyote is a generalized feeder. It has a broad variety of food types that make up its diet. If humans initiate a pest-control program, killing the population of rabbits, the coyote will not fall victim to starvation, because it can switch to feeding predominantly on rodents, insects, fruits, and domesticated animals (including cats, dogs, and chickens). Hence, species with specialized ecological niche demands (specialists) are in greater danger of extinction than those with generalized

Threats to the Antarctic

Much of the Antarctic bears the distinctive imprint of human modification, particularly through the deliberate introduction of animal pests and predators. Of particular concern are the introduced mammals, notably rodents, cats, rabbits, sheep, cattle, and reindeer. In recent years, there have been several cases of successful eradication of alien mammals from islands, and such efforts are continuing. This is important, since islands are vital breeding and resting grounds for seabirds.

Fauna Pacific Islands

Introduced species (exotics), both accidental and deliberate, are a serious problem. Rats and feral animals can devastate island ecologies. Pigs, cats, rats, and goats are particularly devastating goats devour vegetation, cats eat birds and small animals, and rats and pigs eat anything.

Searching for the Fossil Remains

Numerous, but none of these types practiced ritual burials (Neanderthals were the first to do that), so the most usual agent of presentation was some sort of nonhuman carnivore. Predators, such as the large cats, might actually have hunted the early hominids in any case, they certainly scavenged hominid carcasses. Hyenas and other cleanup animals then grabbed what they could, taking the leftover pieces to their dens in limestone caves. (There must be some truth to this scenario, because leopards and hyenas have left their toothmarks on australopithecine bones.) The gnawed bones, now thoroughly disarticulated, were scattered about the cave and eventually solidified by limy deposits into a bone breccia.

Current State of Linkage Maps in Mammals

Sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits, dogs, cats and horses. Much of this growth in genetic mapping arose from the seminal paper of Botstein et a . (1980) when the first genetic map based on DNA markers, specifically restriction fragment length polymorphisms, was developed for humans. It soon became apparent that molecular biology could provide an effectively unlimited number of genetic markers in any species and the race was on to construct comprehensive maps. Marker dense linkage maps, mainly based on microsatellites, are now available for these species (Table 1.2).

Experimental Endocrinology

Hormones produced by different glands can have similar physiological effects. Both the adrenal glands and the testes produce androgens (masculinizing hormones). Sexually experienced male cats do not lose their sex drive if castrated, and researchers do not have a satisfactory answer as to why this occurs. Perhaps the adrenal hormones are sufficient to maintain established feline male sexual behavior but not sufficient to initiate it in inexperienced cats. The ablation of the adrenal glands, however, has severe consequences in terms of electrolyte and blood glucose imbalances that are life threatening. Replacement of ablated endocrine tissue can reinstate normal function. If

Lan Hu and Dennis J Kopecko

Campylobacter is a leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans in all parts of the world. In the United States Campylobacter cause approximately 2.5 million illnesses per year (or 12.4 of all defined foodborne illnesses) and are responsible for 124 deaths each year. About 80 of Campylobacter illnesses are thought to be foodborne (Mead et al., 1999). In developing countries, infection is hyperendemic among young children < 5 years of age (Oberhelman and Taylor, 2000). Infection of domesticated animals is widespread (including poultry, pigs, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, and birds). This pathogen can be transmitted to human populations through consumption of undercooked poultry, pork, and beef, unpasteurized milk, contaminated drinking water, and the feces of infected pets (Aho et al., 1989 Shane, 1992 Stern et al., 2001).

Relations with Humans

Hunting, destruction of habitat, and competition with ranchers and farmers all threaten the survival of the jaguar. In 1968, the United States imported 13,5l6 jaguar skins. The number of cats slain declined after the 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species banned traffic in jaguar pelts. However, illegal trade continues it is profitable because the beautiful skins Milton Berman See also Carnivores Cats Cheetahs Fauna Central America Fauna South America Leopards Lions Mountain lions Predation Tigers.

Narcissus tazetta Linn

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter-penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5 v w), which contains d-nardostachone, valeranone and jata-mansone as the major ketonic sesqui-terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Continuous Layered Visual Feature Extraction Filters

The idea that visual feature extraction can proceed in an analogous manner using layers of discrete neurons was first set forth by Fukushima (1969 1970). Fukushima's models were inspired by a long series of papers on the neurophysiology of vision in various vertebrates, including frogs (Lettvin et al. 1959), rabbits (Barlow, 1963 Barlow and Hill, 1964 Levick, 1967), cats (Rodiek and Stone, 1965 Rodiek, 1965 Hubel and Wiesel, 1959 1962 1965), and also in the horseshoe crab, Limulus (Ratliff, 1964). Fukushima's (1969) model for visual feature extraction used six layers of neural signal space, including a two-dimensional receptor layer. It was a static model i.e., no object motion was assumed, and the object did not change in time.

Prevention and Treatment

Rodent control, by trapping, poisoning, and or cats, on a village-wide basis is applicable where the reservoir host is a commensal animal, as in lymphocytic choriomeningitis (Mus musculus), Lassa fever (Mastomys natalensis), or Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Calomys callosus). However, it is difficult in rural settings such as those characteristic of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. A live attenuated Junin virus vaccine is undergoing phase 2 clinical trials in Argentina, and a vaccinia recombinant carrying the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene has been shown to protect monkeys against challenge.

Pathogen control in vivo

Effects of oral administration of bLF on intractable stomatitis in feline immunodeficiency virus (FlV)-positive and FIV-negative cats, and phagocytosis of neutrophils in healthy and ill cats was tested (Sato et al., 1996). Bovine LF (40 mg kg ot body weight) was applied topically to the oral mucosa of cats with intractable stomatitis daily for 14 days and improvement of clinical signs of disease (pain-related response, salivation, appetite, and oral inflammation) was evaluated. Assay of neutrophil phagocytosis was examined before and 2 weeks after starting LF treatment, using nonopsonized hydrophilic polymer particles. Bovine LF could improve intractable stomatitis and concurrently enhanced the host defense system. Topical application of bLF to oral mucus membrane was suggested useful as a treatment for intractable stomatitis also for FIV-positive cats.

Clinical Transplantation

Alexis Carrel reported the first systematic study of transplantation in 1908 he interchanged both kidneys in a series of nine cats. Some of those receiving kidneys from other cats maintained urinary output for up to 25 days. Although all the cats eventually died, the experiment established that a transplanted organ could carry out its normal function in the recipient. The first human kidney transplant, attempted in 1935 by a Russian surgeon, failed because there was a mismatch of blood types between donor and recipient. This incompatibility caused almost immediate rejection of the kidney, and the patient died without establishing renal function. The rapid immune response experienced here, termed hyperacute rejection, is mediated by antibodies and will be described in this chapter. The first successful human kidney transplant, which was between identical twins, was accomplished in Boston in 1954. Today, kidney, pancreas, heart, lung, liver, bone-marrow, and cornea transplantations are...

The Spatial Spread of Rabies Among Foxes I Background and Simple Model

Red foxes account for about 70 of the recorded cases in Western Europe. Although Britain has effectively been free from rabies since about 1900, the disease could be reintroduced in the near future through the illegal importation of pets or even by infected bats from the continent. The problem would be particularly serious in Britain because of the high rural and urban density of foxes, dogs and cats. In Bristol, for example, the fox density is of the order of 12 foxes km2 as compared with a rural population of 2-4 foxes km2. The book on the fox and rabies by Macdonald (1980) provides many of the facts and data for Britain. General data on rabies in Europe is available from the Centre National d'Etudes sur la Rage in France. The books edited by Kaplan (1977) and Bacon (1985) are specifically concerned with the population dynamics of rabies and provide biological and ecological background together with some data on the disease.

Urban And Suburban Wildlife

Biodiversity variety of life found in a community or ecosystem includes both species richness and the relative number of individuals of each species exotics organisms, usually animals, that have been deliberately or inadvertently introduced into a new habitat, such as monk parakeets in New England, or brown snakes on Guam feral animals domestic animals that have reverted to a wild or semiwild condition, such as cats, dogs, or caged birds that have been released or escaped and now survive in the wild morphology development, structure, and

Suburban Wildlife Habitats

Foraging and food habits of urban predators sometimes conflict with human concerns. Urban foxes hunt and kill cats, especially kittens, if given the opportunity, while the larger and stronger urban coyote will often not hesitate to kill and eat cats and dogs, to the pet owners' dismay.

Consumption studies and safety data

Much higher levels of bLF have been administered orally to mice and rats, as high as 20 g L of milk for fourteen days and 20 g kg diet for thirty weeks, respectively, with no known side effects. Subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration of bLF also support the safety of bLF when it is given by more sensitive routes of delivery. Bovine LF has been given as a single intraperitoneal dose to rats at 100 mg kg body weight with no known adverse effect. Other animal species, including cats, pigs, calves, and monkeys have been given bLF orally with no detrimental effects.

Iiiecology And Foodstuffs

Plesiomonas is an ubiquitous microorganism and can be isolated from freshwater (rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, etc.) and estuarine water from cold-blooded animals, such as freshwater fish, shellfish, snakes, and toads and from warm-blooded animals, such as goats, swine, cats, dogs, and monkeys (2-6). Plesiomonas may also be present in unsanitary water, including that used as drinking water, and in recreational water, aquarium water, and tropical fish tanks. Freshwater fish and shellfish, including oysters, have been implicated in P. shigelloides food poisoning. However, the most common route of transmission of the pathogen in sporadic or epidemic cases is by ingestion of contaminated water, raw fish, and shellfish (7-12).

Interspecies Grooming

Ers often start training horses in spring when the animals are shedding. By brushing and grooming, the trainer develops a friendship and level of trust with the animal. This is an example of interspecies bonding through grooming. This behavior is widely noticed between any combination of humans, dogs, and cats. Sometimes licking another animal or human is simply a show of affection.

Additional Heterogeneities

Shirai M, Sada K, and Ninomiya I. Effects of regional alveolar hypoxia and hypercapnia in small pulmonary vessels in cats. J. Appl. Physiol. 1986 61 440-448. 84. Shirai M, Shindo T, and Ninomiya I. -adrenergic mechanisms attenuate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during systemic hypoxia in cats. Am. J. Physiol. 1994 266 H1777-H1785.

Larva Migrans Externa or Cutaneous Larva Migrans CLM Creeping Eruption

CLM designates a syndrome caused by migration of larval parasites in the skin of accidental hosts. Hookworm species of dogs and cats (e.g., Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma caninum) and Strongyloides species of various hosts (mammalian animals, humans) are mainly responsible for human CLM. Other potential causative organisms include insect larvae (Hypoderma, Gasterophilus, etc.).

History of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

Investigators from as early as the 1930s were aware that men at altitude in the Andes mountains had an enlarged right heart as seen by electrocardiogram, chest X-ray and autopsy compared to men at sea level (29, 34). This was thought to be due to hypoxia, anoxica anoxia. How the right heart became hypertrophied was unclear until the recognition in 1946 that pulmonary vessels constricted to hypoxia (46). von Euler and Liljestrand were exploring the regulators of pulmonary blood flow in cats into which they had implanted a rigid tube and flange through the side of a pulmonary artery to measure pulmonary artery pressure. In 9 cats they measured a mean pulmonary artery pressure of17 mmHg when the cats spontaneously inhaled air or were artificially ventilated. They noted that when the cats were ventilated with 10-11 02 that there was a distinct rise in pulmonary artery pressure. They did not measure cardiac output with hypoxia but did note only a small rise in pulmonary artery pressure...

Inulin Type Fructans and Feed for Domestic Animals and pets

Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of inulin-type fructans (mainly oligofructose) on companion animals, but the results have still to be considered as preliminary. In dogs, oligofructose reduces small intestinal bacterial overgrowth but has a mixed effect on colonic microflora it enhances small intestinal absorptive capacity, improves the balance between epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation in the colon, tends to decrease fecal excretion of putrefactive compounds. In the same animal, both oligofructose and inulin have only a modest effect on fecal characteristics and nutrient digestibility as compared to traditional fiber sources. In cats, data are limited but oligofructose may improve colonic bacterial balance.

Environmental Factors

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Vulva

Toxoplasmosis and syphilis cause birth defects. Poorly cooked meat domestic animals, especially cats and feces in contaminated soil can carry the protozoan parasite Toxoplasmosis gondii. A characteristic feature of fetal toxoplasmosis infection is cerebral calcifications.

The Struggle to Survive

Factors include physical factors (temperature and light, for example), chemical factors such as water and salt, and species interactions. Any of these factors can influence the survivability of organisms in any particular environment. According to ecologist Charles Krebs, species interactions include four principal types mutualism, which is the living together of two species that benefit each other (for example, humans and their pets) commensalism, which is the living together of two species that results in a distinct benefit (or number of benefits) to one species while the other remains unhurt (commensalism is shown in the relationship of birds and trees) predation, which is the hunting, killing, and eating of one species by another (examples cats and mice dogs and deer) and competition, which is defined as an active struggle for survival among all the species in a given environment. This struggle involves the acquisition of various resources food, territory, and mates. Food is an...

Viral Gastroenteritis

Viral Gastroenteritis

Assiduous searches have revealed a fascinating range of viruses in feces, none of which are human parasites, including bacteriophages parasitizing enteric bacteria and plant or animal viruses from ingested food. There is much current interest in two small viruses with genomes consisting of two or three segments of double-stranded RNA, which because of similarities to the family Birnavindae have been tentatively named picobirnaviruses and picotrirna-viruses, respectively Miscellaneous other small round viruses and parvovirus-like agents have also been carefully described, as well as parvoviruses causing enteritis in cats and dogs, but a clear etiologic association has yet to be nailed down in humans. The same applies to the enteric coro-naviruses, and perhaps enteric toroviruses, which have been frequently visualized by electron microscopy in feces from patients or even outbreaks of human gastroenteritis, especially in psychogeriatric patients, AIDS patients, and immunocompromised...

Diphyllobothrium latum Broad Tapeworm Fish Tapeworm

Intestine of humans and fish-eating mammals such as pigs, dogs, and cats. The parasite has two elongated grooves (bothria) on its head, it is 2-15 m long with numerous (up to 4000) proglottids (Fig. 10.7a, b, p. 561). The oval, yellow-brown, operculated eggs (approx. 70 x 50 im) are similar to those of trematodes (Fig. 10.1, p. 544). The life cycle includes copepods as primary and freshwater fish as secondary intermediate hosts. Humans acquire the infection when eating raw or undercooked fish containing infective stages (plerocercoids) of the tapeworm. Development of a sexually mature tapeworm can be completed within 18 days.

Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species

Wuchereria Bancrofti Life Stages

About 120 million people in 80 countries suffer from lymphatic filariosis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia species (one-third each in India and Africa, the rest in southern Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), and 1.1 billion people are at infection risk (WHO, 2000). (Table 10.4). Humans are the only natural final hosts of W. bancrofti and the most widely disseminated Brugia strains. There are, however, other Brugia strains using also animals as final hosts (cats, dogs, and monkeys).

Teeth Fangs And Tusks

Asian Elephant Tusks

Tooth-bearing animals may be heterodont or homodont. Most mammals are heterodont and carry two or more types of teeth, such as the incisors and the molars. The purpose of the incisors is to tear and bite into the food, while the molars crush and grind the food. Cats do not have flat-

Bartonella and Afipia Bartonella

B. henselae Cats to humans cats Epidemiology and prevention. Oroya fever (also known as Carrion disease) is observed only in humans and is restricted to mountain valleys with elevations above 800 m in the western and central Cordilleras in South America because an essential vector, the sand fly, lives only there. Cat scratch disease, on the other hand, is known all over the world. It is transmitted directly from cats to humans or indirectly by cat fleas. The cats involved are usually not sick. Table 4.14 lists the pathogens and clinical pictures for the various bartonel-loses.

Sensors Mediators and Modulators

The role ofpH as modulator of HPV was discussed earlier but the possibility that pH might also mediate HPV is suggested by studies in isolated arteries and cells. During hypoxia, pHj increased in small pulmonary artery cells but decreased in large pulmonary artery cells. These changes were not dependent upon the pHj before hypoxia (28). In large diameter pig pulmonary arteries, pH also decreased during hypoxia (23). In HC03 -containing solutions, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from cats and guinea pigs showed evidence for the major ion exchangers, Na+ H+ and the Na+ dependent and independent C1 HC03 ion transporters. In the catthe CI' HC03 exchanger appeared to be more active

Animals of the Amazon Basin

The tapir's natural enemy, the jaguar, also is found in the eastern Andes and in the forests east of the high mountains. This feline, which was worshiped by pre-Columbian civilizations as a god, lives in the area between the southern United States and northern Argentina and is especially prevalent in Brazil. Strong swimmers, jaguars like to live near rivers and other streams. At the end of the twentieth century, they were on the list of threatened animals in South America. They were threatened because farmers were farming lands that previously were their natural habitat, and also because farmers, claiming that the cats killed their cattle and sheep, were killing the jaguars.

Monotreme and Marsupial Mammals

The most familiar marsupials are the kangaroo, koala, Tasmanian devil, and opossum, although there have been many other types of marsupials in the past, and many are still alive today in Australia and South America. Where marsupials lived in isolation with no competition from placental mammals, they evolved into many different body forms, which converge on the body forms of their ecological equivalents in the placentals. In Australia today, there are marsupial equivalents of cats, wolves, mice, flying squirrels, rabbits, moles, tapirs, and monkeys. Among extinct marsupials of South America, there were the equivalents of lions and of saber-toothed cats. As similar as these animals look to their placental equivalents in their external body form, they are not related to true cats, wolves, or the rest, since they are all pouched mammals.

Claws Nails And Hooves

Tached to the skin surface and an anterior edge overlapping the end of the digit to which it is attached. In clawed animals such as badgers, moles, rodents, wolves, and cats this edge can become quite long. The matrix, the skin below the root and body of a nail or claw, is thick and covered with highly vascular papillae. The matrix color is sometimes seen through transparent horny tissue, in humans and in some other species with relatively thin nail bodies or claws. A nail or claw grows forward by a combination of continual growth of new cells both at the root and under its body. The body of the nail or claw in the predatory and burrowing animals is much thicker than in humans. Unlike human nails, the claws of burrowing animals do not have to be trimmed they are worn down by use. The claws of cats, from house cats to lions and tigers are retractable. This allows these animals to walk easily without wearing their claws down and to unsheathe them for the serious business of capturing...

Prion and Fungal Diseases

In inbred lines of animals, such as purebred dogs, where breeding selection for desirable characteristics also inadvertently produces recessive inherited diseases such as hip dysplasia and deafness. Some congenital defects are considered desirably exotic in companion animals, such as curled ears or stubby tails in cats, droopy ears in rabbits, or short legs, flattened faces, or lack of hair in dogs.

Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis Clinical features

Although many patients improve spontaneously with age, around 30 develop a progressive myopathy. The disease is treated prophylactically with acetazolamide. Ingestion of potassium at the start of an attack may also be helpful. HypoPP is not confined to man. It also occurs in Burmese cats.

The Fightor Flight Response Includes Specific Cardiovascular Changes

Upon stimulation of certain areas in the hypothalamus, cats demonstrate a stereotypical rage response, with spitting, clawing, tail lashing, back arching, and so on. This is accompanied by the autonomic fight-or-flight response described in Chapter 6. Cardiovascular responses include elevated heart rate and blood pressure.

Images and Homeostasis

When one's vital interests are at stake, the evocation of involuntary images likely serves an adaptive function. This suggests that the evocation of snapshot images is a primitive mental function that is not uniquely human. It is probable, as I have suggested, that such images are used in the service of homeostasis. For example, elephants in times of drought desperately need to find watering holes, and it is reasonable to suppose that this search would be facilitated by images of remembered watering holes. When a monkey hears the call of a leopard, it is probable that the animal experiences, as an association, an involuntary image of a leopard. We know that alarm calls in vervet monkeys carry semantic information. These monkeys produce distinctive alarm calls in response to three different classes of predators big cats, birds of prey, and snakes (Hauser 2000). Their alarm signals communicate not only emotions but also specific vital information that will prompt the very different...

Methods for Toxin Identification

Prior to the advent of serological identification of toxins, all toxins were identified by emetic responses in a monkey feeding assay (21). However, such assays had to be limited in quantity and possessed variable sensitivity, making interpretation sometimes difficult. In this method, the test sample is injected by catheter into the stomach of a young monkey. The animal is observed for 5 hours, and if vomiting occurs during the observation period, the sample is judged to contain toxin (1). While this animal assay is considered specific, a number of disadvantages exist (22). An alternative bioassay is through the intravenous injection of cats or kittens (23,24). However, other bacterial metabolites have been found to cause nonspecific emetic responses, although these nonspecific components can be neutralized or inactivated (22).

Pollution Effects of Chemicals

Cline drove the brown pelican and bald eagle close to extinction. In 1973, the U.S. Congress passed the Endangered Species Act, which banned the use of DDT. The once-threatened species have somewhat recovered since. In the mid 1950's, the World Health Organization used DDT on the island of Borneo to control malaria. DDT entered food webs through a caterpillar. Wasps that fed on the caterpillar were first destroyed. Gecko lizards that ate the poisoned insects accumulated high levels of DDT in their bodies. Both geckos and the village cats that ate the geckos died of DDT poisoning. The rat population exploded with its natural enemy, cats, eliminated. The village was then threatened with an outbreak of plague, carried by the uncontrolled rats.

Carnivores and Archontans

In addition to the insectivores, the primary mammalian predators are the carnivorans. They include the feliforms (cats, hyenas, and mongoose) and the caniforms (dogs, bears, seals, sea lions, walruses, pandas, raccoons, weasels, and their relatives). Carnivora (except the panda) all live by killing prey and eating the meat. For this purpose, they have sharp cutting and slicing teeth and enlarged front canine teeth for stabbing. Most have sharp claws, and cats have claws that are retractable. Some carnivora, such as bears, eat fruit, berries, insects, fish, and almost anything else that is available. The pinnipeds, another group of carnivorans related to the bears, have become secondarily aquatic. These include the seals, sea lions, and walruses. Their aquatic specializations include a streamlined body for swimming, with hands and feet developed into flippers.

Preening More than Good Looks

Which is the selfless delivery of service from one animal to another. Whenever one observes a parent grooming its young, the conclusion is that the motive behind the act is to tend to the health of the infant or young, which promotes the proliferation of the species. Nearly all mammals and many species of birds display this behavior. With marsupial births, the young of the Virginia opossum are in a semiembryonic state. The mother licks the embryon at birth so that the membrane encasing it will break. She then licks a trail from the birth canal to the pouch so that the neonate, using its developed olfactory senses, can find its way to the pouch without further aid by the mother. In altricial and semialtricial placental mammals, the young are usually born naked or with little fur. Most of these animal types, such as cats, dogs, mice, shrew, rats, and hamsters, lick the newborn to remove the birth membrane, break the umbilical cord, and eat the placenta after birth. They lick the newborn...

Placental Mammals

The placental mammals form a diverse and successful group that includes the insectivores (such as shrews, hedgehogs, and moles), bats, sloths, anteaters, armadillos, primates (to which humans belong), rodents, rabbits, whales, dolphins and porpoises, carnivores (such as cats, dogs, and bears), seals, aardvarks, elephants, hyraxes, manatees, uneven-toed mammals (such as tapirs, horses, and rhinoceroses), and even-toed (cloven-hoofed) mammals such as pigs, camels, deer, sheep, cattle, and goats.

Carnivore Conservation and Human Carnivore Conflict

In summary, the order of carnivores is very diverse in body size, habits, social organization, geographic distribution, and basic ecology. Most members of this order are intelligent, predatory, adaptable, nocturnal, and solitary. However, among the exceptions to these general rules about carnivores are some of those species most familiar to humans coyotes, lions, and wolves. Humans have long had a mixed view of carnivores. From the Egyptian reverence for cats and more recent

Other species infecting humans

Little is known about the epidemiology of the Microspora. Their spores can remain viable outside of a host for several weeks, are relatively heat-resistant, and are killed by 70 ethanol in 10 minutes. E. cuniculi has a reservoir in animals isolates of this species from rabbits and humans are morphologically, immunologically, and genetically identical. Pigs, dogs, and cats can function as carriers and excreters of E. bieneusi, but the genotypes of animal origin are of little if any significance for humans.

Conservation Concerns

Suffered from exploitation by humans for food. Many species in both groups are extinct, and all populations are threatened or endangered. Introduced predators, notably feral cats and the mongoose, which was introduced to control rats in sugar cane fields, have eliminated populations of ground-dwelling snakes and lizards on many islands. Goats denude vegetation on which native species depend. The outlook is grim for many species, but hard lessons learned in the West Indies might lead to more enlightened policies elsewhere.

General Characteristics of Hierarchies

From the observer until some crisis occurs to force a confrontation. For example, a troop of baboons can go for hours without engaging in sufficient hostile exchanges to reveal their ranking, but in a moment of crisis such as a quarrel over food the hierarchy will suddenly be evident. Some species are organized in absolute dominance hierarchies in which the rank orders remain constant regardless of the circumstances. Status within an absolute dominance hierarchy changes only when individuals move up or down in rank through additional interaction with their rivals. Other animal societies are arranged in relative dominance hierarchies. In these arrangements, such as with crowded domestic house cats, even the highest-ranking individuals acquiesce to subordinates when the latter approach a point that would normally be too close to their personal sleeping space.

Sources and Types of Urban Wildlife

Feral animals, mostly dogs (Canidae) and cats (Felidae), represent another important source and component of urban wildlife. Feral dogs revert to primal adaptive behaviors, gathering in loose packs that usually forage and take shelter to gether, but have limited success because almost all cities in developed countries have ongoing measures to control and remove them whenever found. Feral cats are often more successful because they are secretive, mostly nocturnal, and can clearly better exploit available urban food sources. The role of other feral animals as urban wildlife, mostly escaped pets, is not well known.

Spaceoccupying Lesion Syndrome

Although a number of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections may cause cerebral abscesses, this section discusses primarily the management of cerebral toxoplas-mosis, which since the emergence of HIV infection has become the commonest cause of cerebral abscess seen. The causative agent of toxoplasmosis is a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Cats serve as natural reservoirs of Toxoplasma, virtually any animal that ingests material contaminated with oocyts can become infected. The frequency and prevalence of Toxoplama infection in humans varies considerably depending upon age dietary habits, climate, and proximity to cats. Toxoplasma cerebral abscesses occur most frequently in patients with HIV infection. The clinical manifestations typically evolve over several weeks, and focal signs referable to the site of the abscess are noted. Interestingly, in this patient population, toxoplasma has a predilection to localize in the basal ganglia, not infrequently resulting in movement...

History of Animal Domestication

Goats, cattle, and pigs were domesticated there by around 6000 b.c.e. The Indian subcontinent and east Asia were independent sites for domesticating cattle and pigs, respectively. Llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs were domesticated in the Andes Mountains of South America. Domestication of cats occurred in Egypt and of rabbits in Europe. No native animals were domesticated in Australia, likely because none of them were suitable for domestication. It is worthy of note that few domestications have occurred in the past thousand years. It is also of interest that domesticatable species were not evenly distributed over the globe, which probably has had a lasting effect on the differential development of various cultures.

Protecting Endangered Fur Bearers

Big Mons Pubis

The desire on the part of humans for fur garments has led to atrocities committed on many mammal species which have gorgeous pelage. One of many examples is clubbing young fur seals to death. Beyond that, many species have been hounded to near extinction by hunters. Classic examples of such endangered species are the big cats, such as

Evidence from Genetic Studies

Preliminary evidence for the involvement of the renin-angiotensin system in ischemic events also has come from retrospective but not prospective epidemiological studies of the ACE gene in humans. A retrospective case-controlled study of small sample size by Cambien et al. (11) suggested a link between polymorphism of the ACE gene with increased risk of MI. This finding, however, was not supported by data of a larger sample size from the Physicians' Health Study studied by Lindpaintner et al. (12), who found no association between the presence of the ACE gene D-allele and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease or MI (12,13). This ACE gene polymorphism consists of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of a 287-bp sequence of DNA. Individuals containing the D D genotype exhibit plasma ACE levels twice that of individuals containing the I I genotype (11). The D D genotype also is more prevalent in middle-aged men with a prior history of MI when compared to age-matched controls (11). An...

Emergency Veterinary Medicine

Larvae into the skin, then migrate to the bloodstream. Adult heartworms can grow as long as fourteen inches inside host animals' hearts, impeding their circulation and potentially causing death. Mosquito control and regular doses of heartworm medicine help prevent the spread of heartworms. Cats are also tested for feline leukemia virus, a fatal, contagious disease. Horses are given a Coggins test to detect equine infectious anemia. Veterinarians treat animals infested with parasites with deworming medicines. Tapeworms are prevalent in dogs and cats because they often ingest fleas or raw fish and meat which carry worm eggs. Some animals are born with roundworms. These parasites can cause serious health problems for both humans and animals, and infestations must be carefully treated to rid animals of the parasite without killing the host. Veterinarians also treat animals who have been exposed to poisons and toxins from plants, insects, and reptiles or that have suffered extremes of heat...


Northrop was a member of the Electrical and Systems Engineering faculty at UCONN until his retirement in June 1997. Throughout this time, he was program director of the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program. As Emeritus Professor, he now teaches graduate courses in biomedical engineering, writes texts, sails, and travels. He lives in Chaplin, CT, with his wife and two cats.

Types of Shark Birth

Veterinary Guide for Dogs, Cats, Birds, and Exotic Pets. Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. Tab Books, 1992. Holds much useful data on pet-keeping, breeding, and parturition. Spaulding, C. E., and Jackie Clay. Veterinary Guide for Animal Owners Sheep, Poultry, Rabbits, Dogs, Cats. Emmaus Pa. Rodale Press, 1998. Provides much interesting information on keeping animals, including gestation, parturition and related problems.

The Primate Brain

Tions, and social interactions take place, although even in monkeys and apes the front of the brain manages social awareness and behavior. Since the primate brains of apes and monkeys are so similar to those of humans, many studies of brain function have involved experimentation on these animals, humans' closest relatives. Other mammals such as mice, rats, cats, and dogs have also served as subjects of brain studies that can be related not only to their own specific behavior, but also to how the human brain works in its various component parts. Since neurons are very similar to each other, whether they come from sea slugs, squid, or mammals, experimentation using these animals has produced insight into how all brains and nervous systems work.


Tiger salamanders, when living in extremely crowded conditions, develop special structures in their mouths that enable them to eat other salamanders that are their competitors. Adult male Kodiak bears often kill and eat young cubs, especially male cubs, as a means of both supplementing their diet and eliminating future competitors. Male lions and male feral cats are also known to kill and eat the cubs of another male, thus enabling them to mate with the mother of those cubs and ensure that their own offspring will survive. Male chimpanzees are also known to engage in the practice of killing and eating infants of females that they have not impregnated.


Carnivores are a modern order of mammal that includes ten families bears, cats, civets, dogs, hyenas, mongooses, pandas, red pandas, raccoons, and weasels. They first appear in the fossil record of the Eocene period, forty to fifty million years ago, and probably evolved from nocturnal, small, semiarboreal predators called miacids. Carnivores are recognizable by their teeth enlarged canines, specialized for stabbing and holding prey, and carnassials, specialized for shearing flesh and skin. All carnivores eat other animals, which they capture in a variety of ways. Most are terrestrial, although the otters are aquatic. Carnivores are found on all continents except Antarctica. They are recent arrivals to Australia, apparently having reached this island continent along with humans ten to forty thousand years ago. Bears, Cats, and Civets Cats (family Felidae) are distributed throughout the world, from the heights of the Himalayas (the snow leopard) to the Amazon (the jaguar). The cats are...

Predatory Behavior

Most carnivores pursue prey to obtain animal food. Four behavioral strategies for prey capture can be identified. The first and simplest is random encounter, in which the carnivore moves about its habitat and captures hidden or immobile prey. This predatory style characterizes most mongooses, civets, bears, and many mustelids. The second strategy involves following tunneling prey into their burrows. Many of the weasel group are specialized for this type of hunting, with their long, slender bodies and ability to lock their jaws on prey. The third strategy is ambush or stalking, in which predators rely on stealth to surprise prey. Any pursuit is typically a short chase that is abandoned if the prey outdistances the attacker. All cats are ambush predators.


Living Felidae are usually classified into four genera containing thirty-six species. In 1916, R. I. Pocock, a taxonomist at the London Zoo, established the modern feline classification system using hyoid bones as the fundamental characteristic and the epihyal structure as distinguishing the two major cat genera. He defined the genus Panthera as cats whose epihyal bone is replaced by a thin ligament these animals normally vocalize by roaring rather than purring. Included in this genus are the large cats of Africa and Asia the lion (P. leo), the tiger (P. tigris), the leopard (P. pardus), the snow leopard (P. uncia), and the American jaguar (P onca). Pocock placed cats whose epihyal develops as a normal bone within the genus Felis. They are able to purr continuously and usually do not roar. For the most part these animals are small cats, including the African golden cat (F. aurata), the ocelot (F. pardalis), and many varieties of the European and African wildcat (F. sylvestris). This...

Cat Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Family Felidae (cats) Genera Felis (small cats, twenty-eight species) Panthera (large cats, seven species) Acinonyx (cheetah) Neofelis (clouded leopard) Geographical location Native to all land areas of the world except Antarctica, Australia, and some oceanic islands Habitat Forests and grassy plains Gestational period Large cats, 3 to 3.5 months smaller cats, approximately 2 months Life span Potential longevity is probably fifteen years for most species some individuals have lived over thirty years Special anatomy Large eyes with excellent night vision jaws adapted to seizing and gripping prey, teeth designed for tearing and slicing flesh Cat legs are often long and muscular, permitting short, high-speed bursts when attacking prey. Cat claws are usually retractable, pulling inward when running, but extending outward when catching or holding victims. Although...

Chapter Overview

What makes a species what it is We know that cats always have kittens and people always have babies. This commonsense observation naturally leads to questions about the determination of the properties of a species. The determination must be hereditary because, for example, the ability to have kittens is inherited by every generation of cats. 2. What causes variation within a species We can distinguish one another as well as our own pet cat from other cats. Such differences within a species require explanation. Some of these distinguishing


The sensitivity and hearing range vary among species, as they are dependent upon the size and mass of the moving parts. Dogs and cats can perceive frequencies as high as 40,000 hertz, and bats can detect sounds above 150,000 hertz. Adult human ears are capable of perceiving sound waves having frequencies between 16 hertz and 16,000 hertz chimpanzees and monkeys can hear frequencies above 30,000 hertz. The delicacy and precision of pitch discrimination, dependent upon the number and distribution of hair cells along the basilar membrane, are most highly developed in primates.


Are partly airborne, like those of domestic cats and dogs. Mating calls are given by many females, such as the female gibbon's ascending call, which is then answered by the male. Behavioral changes during estrus are almost universal, as both sexes concentrate on the quest for one or several partners. The initial stages, which may suggest female coyness to an observer, are part of the courtship process. For example, the female cheetah leads several males on a headlong run across the plain, finally selecting one with whom to mate. Pet owners notice a restlessness in their dogs and cats female cats in heat are especially likely to roam. The penultimate female signal in many species is lordosis, an arched-back posture which allows the male to mount. Mammalian species are normally either monestrous having a single estrus period a year or polyestrous with several estrus periods recurring annually. The latter situation is more common.

Catfish Blue

Like the channel catfish and the little-known Yaqui catfish of Mexico, the blue cat has a deeply forked tail, a characteristic that distinguishes these three from the flathead catfish and the bullhead, and to some degree also from the white catfish, which has a moderately forked tail. As with other catfish, channel cats have heavy, sharp pectoral and dorsal spines, as well as long mouth barbels. Size Age. Blue cats are capable of growing to gargantuan sizes but are rarely found at the upper limits of their capabilities. Most anglers catch blues in the 5- to 20-pound Distribution. Blue cats are native to the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio River basins in the central and eastern United States, extending north into South Dakota and south into Mexico and northern Guatemala. Dams and commercial harvest are among the factors that have affected their population and perhaps their size in some parts of their native range. They have been introduced with good success into some large river...

Catfish Channel

The body of a channel catfish is pale blue to pale olive with a bit of silvery tint, but the color variation is subject to location and water conditions. Male channel cats during the spawning season may be entirely black dorsally, and other channel cats may be dark blue, with little or no spotting, or uniformly light blue or silvery, like the blue catfish or the white catfish. Another feature distinguishing a channel catfish from a blue catfish is the anal fin this is shorter and more rounded on a channel catfish than on a blue catfish. Distribution. Channel cats exist in freshwater throughout most of the United States and parts of southern Canada and northeastern Mexico. In the United States, they are most abundant in the central region east to the Appalachian Mountains, and sparser on the West and East Coasts, where they are present mostly through introduction. Like other catfish, channel cats have heavy, sharp pectoral and dorsal spines, as well as long mouth barbels.

Antarctic Fauna

Few terrestrial vertebrates are resident in Antarctica, and those that do occur are limited to sub-Antarctic islands. There are no naturally occurring mammals, reptiles, or amphibians, although humans have deliberately or accidentally introduced a range of animals such as rats, mice, fish, chickens, rabbits, cats, pigs, sheep, cattle, and reindeer to the sub-Antarctic, many impacting native species. Terrestrial animals of the sub- and maritime Antarctic include arthropods, earthworms, and mollusks. Higher insects include spiders, beetles, and flies, most of which are confined to the less severe areas. Microinvertebrate groups such as nematodes, tardigrades, and rotifers are also numerically well represented. The terrestrial fauna of the severe areas of the Antarctic continent are even more simplified. No higher insects are present the smallest arthropods are restricted to

Fauna Australia

Are often startled to see camels, apparently wild, striding over the sandy wastes of the Outback and other desert areas. These animals, now wild, are the descendants of domestic dromedary camels that had been used to carry freight across the deserts. A few domestic animals, principally dogs and cats, have escaped and established a feral existence. No doubt some cats were easily and swiftly caught and eaten by dingoes, crocodiles, and feral dogs. The dogs formed packs and preyed on a variety of small marsupials. They are a particular predator of the koala. Some feral dogs were preyed on by dingoes but also joined dingo packs, interbred with them, and quickly became part of the predatory fauna of Australia.

New Zealand

Flightless birds that still survive in New Zealand are the kiwi and the kakapo parrot. The introduction of cats, dogs, rats, and pigs has severely endangered both species, and at the end of the twentieth century, there were fewer than seventy kakapo left. All had been moved to predator-free, offshore islands. The kiwi is New Zealand's state bird, and efforts are being made to save it as well. Two species of another flightless bird, the penguin, breed on the south and east coasts. There are more than two hundred species of flying birds, at least forty of them introduced, including tropic birds, gulls, hawks, harriers, skuas, spoonbills, and pheasant. The only original endemic mammals were two species of bats. In the last two hundred years, many exotic marsupials and mammals have appeared, including rabbits, rats, mice, weasels, otters, cats, pigs, cattle, deer, goats, and sheep. Domestic cattle, sheep, and pigs are economically important. The Federated States of Micronesia consists...

Home Building

In the case of small mammals, individuals or groups often live in complex underground burrows such as mole holes. Larger carnivores and omnivores often inhabit dens that are underground burrows, as do members of the weasel family, or in caves and other natural formations, as do bears and big cats.


Campylobacter spp. are widely distributed in nature and are commonly found as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract in wild or domesticated animals. Primary acquisition of Campylobacter by animals often occurs early in life and may lead to morbidity or mortality, but a lifelong carriage develops in most colonized animals. The vast reservoir in animals is probably the ultimate source for most enteric Campylobacter infections in humans. Domestic animals include cattle, sheep, poultry, dogs, and cats. Domestic poultry are a major source of C. jejuni infections in humans. Pigs are a primary host for C. coli. C. fetus has been isolated from sheep, cattle, poultry, reptiles, and swine (Smibert, 1984).

Size and Life Span

In 1932, Max Kleiber derived a mathematical relationship for Rubner's proposal. According to Kleiber's law, also known as the quarter-power scaling law, as mass rises, pulse rate decreases by the one-fourth power. So elephants, which have 104 times the mass of chickens, have a pulse rate one tenth as fast. Scientists suggest that the relation results from the geometry of circulatory systems and point out that the quarter-power scaling law is pervasive in nature, but the underlying reason for it remains unknown. In any case, plenty of exceptions to the mass-life span correlation exist. With a life span of about one hundred years, box turtles outlive fellow reptiles, for example, and humans outlive all mammals (with the possible exception of some whale species) regardless of size. Exceptions also occur among domestic species living sheltered lives Cats have longer life spans than dogs.

Lion Behavior

Second largest of the big cats and the only members of the in groups, called prides. (Domestic cats exhibit some similarities in group behavior.) The pride's core consists of two to twelve closely related lionesses, who assist each other in raising their cubs. Female offspring usually remain members of the group, but males are driven off before becoming sexually mature. Two to four unrelated males live with the pride, fathering the cubs, protecting the pride, and proclaiming their territory with scent marks and loud roars that can be heard for five miles. Males rarely control a pride more than three or four years before being replaced by younger, more powerful challengers. Lions are crepuscular hunters, preferring to rest in the shade during the heat of the day they emerge at sunset or in the early morning to pursue their prey. Lionesses do most of the killing, cooperating when stalking and ambushing victims. The preferred targets are medium to large hoofed animals such as antelopes,...

Lion Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Family Felidae (cats) Genus and species Panthera leo Geographical location Once common to many areas of Europe, Africa, and Asia now found only within protected areas in Africa south of the Sahara and in one wildlife refuge in India Habitat Grassy plains, savannas, and open woodlands Brakefield, Tom. Kingdom of Might The World's Big Cats. Stillwater, Minn. Voyageur Press, 1993. Documents habits, natural history, biology, and challenges that change in population and habitat pose for lions. Extensive bibliography. Kitchener, Andrew. The Natural History of the Wild Cats. Ithaca, N.Y. Comstock Publishing, 1991. Summarizes recent biological and ecological research concerning lion habits and social life. Twenty-three page bibliography of scientific articles. Sleeper, Barbara, and Art Wolfe. Wild Cats of the World. New York Crown, 1995. Describes hunting behavior of...

Nocturnal Animals

Leopards and other big cats stalk herbivore prey in the dark. They depend on their ability to stalk prey silently or to ambush them, very acute hearing, good night vision, and their capacity for quick movement. the big cats. A few nocturnal species, such as tigers, are finally being covered by international conservation agreements, perhaps just in time. The others should be helped to survive, too.

Offspring Care

On the other hand, in species in which young are born or hatched quite helpless with no chance of surviving on their own, it should not be surprising that one or both parents are likely to stay around. Young of such species are referred to as altricial. Dogs and cats are excellent examples of species with altricial offspring so are humans. Generally speaking, mammals are more altricial than most groups of animals, and all mammalian young initially depend upon their mother for food (milk), delivered by means of lactation.

Do Animals Dream

Sumably because it is acting out its dreams. In an undamaged animal, small body movements and twitches during REM sleep are often visible. Many people know when their dog is dreaming because they see it making tiny running motions or hear it making muffled barking sounds. Cats often twitch their limbs and whiskers as they go through a period of REM sleep.


Territory marking is another example in which detailed information is conveyed by chemical communication (Figure 52.11). Pheromone messages left by mammals such as cats and dogs, for example, can reveal a great deal of information about the signaler species, individual identity, reproductive status, size (indicated by the height of the message), and when the animal was last in the area (indicated by the strength of the scent).


The larvae of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens, which in the adult stages are parasites of dogs, cats, and wild carnivores, are occasionally transmitted to humans by mosquitoes immature stages of D. immitis usually invade the lungs and produce 1-4cm round foci there, whereas the stages of D. repens are usually found in subcutaneous nodules. In Europe, the majority of autochthonous cases are reported from Italy, France, and Greece. Imported infections are reported from other countries as well (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, etc.).

Routine Examinations

Veterinarians initiate preventive measures by taking a medical history of each animal, preferably first examining them when they are several weeks old. The condition of the animal is assessed and basic diagnostic tests for parasites and infectious diseases such as distemper are administered and evaluated. If animals test positive, appropriate treatment is begun. For both cats and dogs, a heartworm test is crucial. When a mosquito that has bitten an infected animal bites another dog or cat, these spaghetti-like parasites are injected as


To a six-membered oxygen heterocycle, e.g. nepetalactone from catmint Nepeta cataria (Labiatae Lamiaceae), a powerful attractant and stimulant for cats. The iridoid system arises from geraniol by a type of folding (Figure 5.22) which is different from that already encountered with monoterpenoids, and also different is the lack of phosphorylated intermediates and subsequent carbocation mechanism in its formation. The fundamental cyclization to iridodial is formulated as attack of hydride on the dialdehyde, produced by a series of hydroxylation and oxidation reactions on geraniol. Further oxidation gives iridotrial, in which hemiacetal formation then leads to production of the heterocyclic ring. In iridotrial, there is an equal chance that the original methyls from the head of geraniol end up as


Jaguars are the largest cats found in North or South America, originally occupying a wide diversity of habitats from the southwestern United States to Patagonia. Among big cats, jaguars, much larger than leopards, are exceeded in size only by lions and tigers. Males weigh from 125 to 250 pounds, are 6 to 9 feet long (including a tail up to 2.5 feet long), and stand twenty-four to thirty inches tall at the shoulder females tend to be 20 percent smaller. Jaguar heads are massive and rounded their bodies compact and heavily muscled. Individuals living in densely forested areas of the Amazon basin are significantly smaller than those inhabiting open terrain. Jaguars are crepuscular hunters, preferring dim light in which to stalk and surprise victims by leaping on their backs. The name jaguar comes from the Guarani word yaguara, meaning wild beast that can kill its prey in a single bound. Large eyes and sensitive vibrissae permit jaguars to maneuver in the dark. They are opportunistic...

Menstrual Cycle

Physiology Oocyte Development

In human females and other primates that have menstrual cycles, coitus (sexual intercourse) may be permitted at any time of the cycle. Nonprimate female mammals, by contrast, are sexually receptive (in heat or estrus) only at a particular time in their cycles, shortly before or after ovulation. These animals are therefore said to have estrous cycles. Bleeding occurs in some animals (such as dogs and cats) that have estrous cycles shortly before they permit coitus. This bleeding is a result of high estrogen secretion and is not associated with shedding of the endometrium. The bleeding that accompanies menstruation, by contrast, is caused by a fall in estrogen and progesterone secretion.


Such as horses and ponies, as pets led many veterinarians to begin specializing in practices especially for those animals. Owners relied on veterinarians' preventative measures to ensure the healthy well-being of their pets. Dogs and cats were the most frequently seen patients, but veterinarians also attempted to prevent diseases in more exotic pets, including birds, rodents, fish, reptiles, and amphibians.

Tasmanian Devils

1941 Picture Tasmanian Devil

Went adaptive radiation, which produced an enormous diversity of forms as species became adapted to various habitats. As a result, many marsupials resemble placental mammals although they are not closely related. Thus, there are marsupials that resemble flying squirrels, moles, woodchucks, cats, and dogs. The Tasmanian devil, although a marsupial, has many similarities in structure and behavior to a dog.

Future of Kangaroos

Totaling over twenty million, the six species of large kangaroos are not presently endangered. This is in contrast with the risk to survival faced by some wallabies and smaller marsupials that are preyed upon by introduced wild animals, such as foxes, or by feral cats. The habitats of most kangaroos have been reduced by human activities, housing, industry, and agriculture, although the range of

Trypanosoma cruzi

The most important in epidemiological terms are dogs, cats, rodents, chickens, opossums, and armadillos. Aside from the re-duviid vector, T. cruzi can be transmitted between humans by blood transfusions, diaplacental infection, or organ transplants.

Leopard Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Family Felidae (cats) Genus and species Panthera pardus Geographical location Found over most of Africa south of the Sahara, in the Middle East and India, north to central Asia, and south to Indonesia Milton Berman See also Carnivores Cats Cheetahs Fauna Africa Fauna Asia Jaguars Lions Mountain lions Predation Tigers.

Jaguar Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Family Felidae (cats) Genus and species Panthera onca Geographical location Originally ranged from the southwestern United States to southern Argentina


The fastest land mammals, cheetahs originated millions of years ago, before any of the other big cats, but are now an endangered species. Cheetahs have long bodies and legs and a small domed head with high set eyes, short ears, and a black line (resembling a teardrop) that runs from each eye down to the mouth. These lines aid vision by reducing solar glare. The whiskers are smaller than those of most cats, but cheetahs hunt by sight alone. Mature cheetahs weigh between 110 and 130 pounds and reach an average height of thirty-two inches at the shoulder, while their bodies extend to roughly fifty inches in length. Male cheetahs are slightly larger than females, but both sexes have small teeth and large lungs and nasal passages which produce a high volume of

Endangered Species

Causes of Species Endangerment The destruction of species is caused in four major ways Humans have hunted other species out of existence habitats, the environments in which plants or animals grow and develop, have been destroyed new species, such as rats, cats, goats, or ground-covering plants, have been introduced into regions and displaced native species and nonnative plants and animals have introduced diseases into environments, killing the existing species. For much of history, hunting was the major cause of species extinction. However, hunting has become less of a factor because governments and conservation authorities have imposed strict controls on the practice. In the second half of the twentieth century, habitat destruction and invasion by exotics (nonnative plants and animals) and the diseases they carry caused the most damage. Most biologists agree that whatever the factors involved, the rate of extinction has increased rapidly since the 1950's.


Distribution, life cycle, and epidemiology. Dogs, cats, and foxes all over the world, especially younger animals, are frequently infected with adult Toxocara roundworms. The parasites live in the small intestine and in most cases produce large numbers of eggs. An infective larva develops in an egg shed into the environment within two to three weeks. Humans are infected by accidental peroral ingestion of infective eggs (geophagia, contaminated foods). Small children run a particularly high risk. Fairly high levels of contamination of public parks and playgrounds with Toxocara eggs (sandboxes > 1-50 ) have been found in many cities in Europe and elsewhere. Mean antibody prevalence levels of about 1-8 were measured in healthy persons in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland in serological screening based on a specific ELISA, with figures as high as 30 in some population subgroups. Therapy and prevention. Chemotherapy with albendazole is only indicated in symptomatic cases. Prophylactic...

Mountain Lions

Anotomy Eastern Cougar

Mountain lions, also known as American lions, catamounts, cougars, deer tigers, Florida panthers, and pumas, are classified in the genus Felis with small cats because they share a solid epihyal bone that restricts their ability to roar. Mountain lions purr and during mating emit harsh, frightening screams. Among American felines they are second in size only to the jaguar. Adult male mountain lions weigh from eighty to over two hundred pounds, and are often nine feet long from nose to tip of tail, and up to thirty inches high at the shoulder. Females are about a third less in size. Cats in the equatorial regions are smaller and have thinner coats than those in the extreme north and south of the mountain lion range. Kittens remain with their mothers for eighteen months to two years. Otherwise, mountain lions live solitary lives. Each female has a distinct hunting range where such areas intersect, cats avoid each other. Males hunt over much larger tracts, sometimes covering hundreds of...

Sexual Maturity

After the female reaches maturity, reproductive activities are cyclic. In mammals, there are two different kinds of reproductive cycles. Most mammals have an estrus cycle in which females will mate with a male only if they are in heat, which happens at certain restricted times. An estrus cycle is divided into stages an inactive phase, called anestrus, which may last for days, weeks, months, or years proestrus, during which the follicles are developing estrus, when ovulation occurs and metestrus, when the ova are moving into the oviduct. Females mate, and may become very aggressive about finding a mate, during estrus only. Usually ovulation is triggered by LH from the pituitary gland. In some mammals, including cats and rabbits, ovulation does not occur until the animal mates. Many females signal that they are in estrus. The signals may be chemical a special scent which carries for a long distance, for example or visual. Chimpanzees, for example, develop pink swollen skin on the...

Adapting to Extremes

A large number of animals have adapted to the lack of vegetation and water that exists in much of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Kangaroo rats, pocket mice, jackrabbits, armadillos, peccaries, ring-tailed cats, and ground squirrels all survive in that hostile environment. Predators include bobcats, desert foxes, badgers, and coyotes. See also American pronghorns Antelope Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths Bears Beavers Birds Cats Cattle, buffalo, and bison Chaparral Chickens, turkeys, pheasant, and quail Cranes Crocodiles Deer Deserts Dogs, wolves, and coyotes Donkeys and mules Ducks Eagles Ecosystems Elephant seals Elk Endangered species Fauna Arctic Fauna Caribbean Fauna Central America Fish Forests, coniferous Forests, deciduous Foxes Frogs and toads Geese Goats Gophers Grasslands and prairies Grizzly bears Habitats and biomes Horses and zebras Lakes and rivers Lizards Mammals Manatees Marine animals Moles Moose Mountain lions Mountains Opossums Otters Owls Parrots...

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