Eye Exercises for People With Cataracts

StrongSight Vision Ebook

This is a 105-pages guide created by Dr. Benjamin for all those people that want to improve their eyesight without any surgery or medicine. It is a collection of natural holistic techniques that helped over 16,000 people worldwide and continue receiving success stories from all over the world. In this guide you will discover treatment for both short eye sightedness and long eye sightedness. Here are some highlighted techniques you will find inside this program: 1. How myopic develops and its treatment using eye exercises. 2. 21 Days program in which you will discover steps to get huge improvement. 3. Different eye exercises and techniques for Ocular Muscles that will improve eye muscles. With all types of vision disabilities, it is tough to discover a holistic option to deal with all the issues. But heres your possibility to restore your vision once again, despite what you are struggling with. Accomplishing near 20/20 is now possible in simply 3 weeks just.In that time-frame, you will certainly be ensured to see things in crisp-clear information, minus your lenses or glasses.

Easy Clear Vision Overview


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Other Forms of Contact Lens Related Allergy

Contact lens-related allergic conjunctivitis can also occur from preservatives in the lens care solutions or eye drops. This allergic reaction is secondary to the antigen deposit on the surface of the contact lens 54, 55 . Rarely, subepithelial, nummular peripheral opacities may be seen in allergic conjunctivitis 49 . The signs and symptoms are the same as in other forms of allergic conjunctivitis. Contact lens preservative solutions such as chlorhexidine, thimerosal, ben-zalkonium chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate can bind on the plastic material of the soft contact lens causing delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions In the case of contact lens wear, the immune privilege of the eye may be compromised as a result of changes in the conjunctiva and cornea. Minimization of the risk of corneal infection and a hypersensitivity reaction can be achieved by the safe use of contact lenses and related products. As the use of contact lenses for refractive, cosmetic and therapeutic...

Tissue Stress in Glaucoma

What seems to be the most important parameter for the modulation of the immune system in glaucoma is that the retina and optic nerve head are under widespread and long-term tissue stress in glaucomatous eyes. In addition to the clinical evidence of elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients, there is also evidence of hypoxic 30 and oxidative tissue stress 31 in glaucomatous eyes. The tissue stress in glaucoma is best represented by increased expression of stress proteins, including heat shock proteins, in the retina and optic nerve head 32 . While heat shock proteins function as endogenous protectants of retinal neurons in response to a variety of stressors, including those associated with glaucoma 24, 33 , they also have the ability to elicit an activated immune response. For example, heat shock proteins are known to be highly antigenic, and immune responses to heat shock proteins are implicated in the development of a number of human autoimmune diseases as a consequence of...

Epidemiology of contact lens ulcers and public policy

Millions of people wear contact lenses safely. However, contact lens wear is not without serious complications contact lens-related corneal ulcers pose a risk of significant vision loss. A corneal ulcer is a localized area of tissue erosion associated with inflammatory cells in the cornea. Corneal ulcers can be either infectious or noninfectious 14 . When infectious, the disease is clinically referred to as 'microbial keratitis' (MK). Infectious corneal ulcers are more serious than sterile ulcers, and usually cause significant scarring of the cornea. Corneal scarring opacifies the normally clear corneal tissue this can lead to visual impairment or blindness when the resulting opacity covers the pupil. In the USA, contact lenses are regulated by the FDA. Rigid, plastic, corneal contact lenses made from polymethylmethacrylate began to achieve a significant level of use in the 1950s. However, it was not until the 1970s, after soft lenses were approved for marketing, that contact lenses...

Lasers in Ophthalmology

Lasers Ophthalmology

In ophthalmology, various types of lasers are being applied today for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In diagnostics, lasers are advantageous if conventional incoherent light sources fail. One major diagnostic tool is confocal laser microscopy which allows the detection of early stages of retinal alterations. By this means, retinal detachment and also glaucoma1 can be recognized in time to increase the probability of successful treatment. In this book, however, our interest focuses on therapeutic laser applications. The first indications for laser treatment were given by detachments of the retina. Meanwhile, this kind of surgery has turned into a well-established tool and only represents a minor part of today's ophthalmic laser procedures. Others are, for instance, treatment of glaucoma and cataract. And, recently, refractive corneal surgery has become a major field of research, too. 1 Since glaucoma is usually associated with a degeneration of the optical nerve fibers, it...

Hereditary Hyperferritinaemia Cataract Syndrome

However, mutations in the IRE of the ferritin L subunit mRNA and its gene have been found to be associated with an unusual autosomal dominant disorder, first described in 1995 in two families, one French and one Italian, as the Hereditary Hyperferritinaemia-Cataract Syndrome (HHCS) (Girelli et al., 1995a,b Bonneau et al., 1995). The condition is characterized by the combination of congenital bilateral cataract and marked elevation of serum ferritin levels (> 1000 g l). The hyperfer-ritinaemia was found not to be related to iron overload and entirely due to the increase of the L-subunit, as determined by subunit-specific immunoassay. It was clearly distinguishable from genetic haemochromatosis because of (i) dominant transmission (ii) lack of any relation with HLA, and (iii) normal to low serum iron and transferrin saturation without evidence of parenchymal iron overload. When patients with the syndrome are subjected to unnecessary phlebotomies, they rapidly develop iron-deficient...


ACUTE GLAUCOMA IS PAINFUL AND DEALT WITH ON PAGE 41. chronic glaucoma is painless and is usually found on routine testing Glaucomatous disc with only a few nerve fibers spread around the edge of the large central cup Fig. 4.17a, Pale cupped optic disc in advanced chronic glaucoma - compare this with a normal disc (Fig. 4.17c). b, Normal versus glaucomatous disc.


The constant demand for specialized eye care means that the ophthalmologist may attain a capacity patient load within the first two years of practice. Thus, it is important to project at the outset what the ophthalmologist's space needs will be in two or three years. Often, young ophthalmologists setting up their first offices will try to be too economical. They set up an undersized office based on their patient projection (usually underestimated) at that moment. Then, for the remainder of their lease (usually five years), they are handicapped by a small, poorly laid out office, which greatly inhibits the growth of their practice.


Because the curvature of the cornea and lens is not perfectly symmetrical, light passing through some parts of these structures may be refracted to a different degree than light passing through other parts. When the asymmetry of the cornea and or lens is significant, the person is said to have astigmatism. If a person with astigmatism views a circle of lines radiating from the center, like the spokes of a wheel, the image of these lines will not appear clear in all 360 degrees. The parts of the circle that appear blurred can thus be used to map the astigmatism. This condition is corrected by cylindrical lenses that compensate for the asymmetry in the cornea or lens of the eye. Hyperopia (farsightedness) Rays focus behind retina Convex lens corrects farsightedness Hyperopia (farsightedness) Rays focus behind retina Convex lens corrects farsightedness Myopia (nearsightedness) Rays focus in front of retina (b) Concave lens corrects nearsightedness Myopia (nearsightedness) Rays focus in...

Myopia and Hyperopia

When a person with normal visual acuity stands 20 feet from a Snellen eye chart (so that accommodation is not a factor influencing acuity), the line of letters marked 20 20 can be read. If a person has myopia (nearsightedness), this line will appear blurred because the image will be brought to a focus in front of the retina. This is usually due to the fact that the eyeball is too long. Myopia is corrected by glasses with concave lenses that cause the light rays to diverge, so that the point of focus is farther from the lens and is thus pushed back to the retina (fig. 10.34). If the eyeball is too short, the line marked 20 20 will appear blurred because the focal length of the lens is longer than the distance to the retina. Thus, the focus of the image would have been behind the retina, and the object will have to be placed farther from the eyes to be seen clearly. This condition is called hyperopia (farsightedness). Hyperopia is corrected by glasses with convex lenses that increase...


A cataract is an opacity (cloudiness) of the lens. Causes of cataract include disease, injury, chemicals, and exposure to physical forces, especially the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. The cataracts that frequently appear with age may result from exposure to environmental factors in combination with degeneration attributable to aging. To prevent blindness, the cloudy lens must be removed surgically. Commonly, the anterior capsule of the lens is removed along with the cataract, leaving the posterior capsule in place (Fig. 18-10). In FIGURE 18-10. Cataract extraction surgeries. (A) Cross-section of normal eye anatomy. (B) Extracapsular lens extraction involves removing the lens but leaving the posterior capsule intact to receive a synthetic intraocular lens. (C) Intracapsular lens extraction involves removing the lens and lens capsule and implanting a synthetic intraocular lens in the anterior chamber. phacoemulsification, the lens is fragmented with high-frequency ultrasound and...

Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) is measured by testing the ability of the retinal cones to distinguish test objects, most commonly letters. It should be assessed at the beginning of an eye examination for several reasons. It ensures that the test is not forgotten, a common omission of potential medicolegal significance. As patients occasionally attribute visual loss to the eye examination itself, it is best to measure and record it at the start. The bright light of ihe ophthalmoscope and other optical instruments may dazzle the patient if it is used before testing vision. Testing visual acuity Distance visual acuity should be measured using distance spectacles if worn, with a Snellen chart at 6 metres (Fig. 7.1 (. Distance VA is recorded as two numbers written one over the other. The number on top is the distance between the patient and the lest chart. This is usually 6 metres but

Fundus Retina Figs 113 and 114

It may be very difficult to see any details due to a very small pupil, cataract or vitreous hemorrhage (document the fact if no view is visible). Fig. 1.12 Red reflex -reflected light from retinal surface. The faint opacities are early cataract. Fig. 1.12 Red reflex -reflected light from retinal surface. The faint opacities are early cataract.

Examination and Management

Raised intraocular pressure - over 21 mmHg - predisposes to vein occlusion - if you do not have experience measuring this, you are unlikely to obtain an accurate reading - leave to the ophthalmologist. If a tonopen (portable tonometer) is available - then use and document pressure. Fig. 4.4 A superotemporal branch vein occlusion - the hemorrhages and edema affect the macula region and vision is reduced. If the blockage is more peripheral vision may be spared. Note the cotton wool spots indicating ischemia. Fig. 4.4 A superotemporal branch vein occlusion - the hemorrhages and edema affect the macula region and vision is reduced. If the blockage is more peripheral vision may be spared. Note the cotton wool spots indicating ischemia.

Orbital Hematoma With A View Of The Eye Fig 53 Examination and Management

Check pupil for an afferent defect (see p. 7) - if present with a tight hematoma - consider optic nerve compression - if a delay is anticipated before the patient is seen by the ophthalmologist then a lateral canthotomy may prevent permanent visual loss.

Laser Excimer Refractive Surgery

Two main techniques - both used in the correction of short sightedness (myopia) and less frequently for long sightedness (hypermetropia) or astigmatism. Astigmatism simply describes a cornea that is more curved in one axis than the other - it has a surface contour shaped like a rugby ball as opposed to a football - which is spherical. It is not a disease, and is usually correctable with glasses or contact lenses. Progressive astigmatism may be associated with keratoconus (see p. 92). Reading glasses will be required for middle-aged patients postoperatively. 1. LASIK (Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). LASIK (Fig. 10.2b) LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) Fig. 10.2b LASIK. Fig. 10.2b LASIK.

Management and Referral

Fig. 9.16 Pedunculated papilloma involving conjunctiva. Reproduced with permission from Kanski J J, 2003, Clinical Ophthalmology A Systemic Approach, ButterworthHeinemann. Fig. 9.16 Pedunculated papilloma involving conjunctiva. Reproduced with permission from Kanski J J, 2003, Clinical Ophthalmology A Systemic Approach, ButterworthHeinemann. refer routinely to the ophthalmologist if on lash line.

What is a Pinhole

As stated, simply a small hole or group of holes in a piece of card or plastic, which corrects visual acuity to approximately that achieved with glasses (Figs 1.5 and 1.6) make one by pushing a needle through the back cover of this book. Fig. 1.3 Visual acuity chart. Use the above chart from 3 meters with distance glasses if worn. Fig. 1.3 Visual acuity chart. Use the above chart from 3 meters with distance glasses if worn.

Less Common Causes

Acute glaucoma Thyroid eye disease Localized cataract (if lens capsule penetrated) Localized cataract (if lens capsule penetrated) contact lenses. Overwear or poor contact lens hygiene may lead to corneal abrasions or ulcers. eye surgery - recent or past. Any sudden deterioration after surgery may indicate infection irritation due to sutures may follow cataract surgery, but is now much less common with the use of modern suture-free surgery discomfort immediately following retinal detachment and squint surgery is common but soon resolves. reduced vision. Occurs in most cases, often due to excess watering, photophobia, or disruption of the central optical zone by an abrasion acute glaucoma causes corneal clouding and occurs predominantly in the elderly.


Vision usually reduced with corneal abrasion, contact lens overwear and acute glaucoma - often only minimally reduced with corneal foreign bodies, uveitis or episcleritis. 2. Fixed oval pupil, hazy cornea, elderly patient, assume acute glaucoma (see p. 41). 3. Examine the conjunctival fornices (gutter between inside of eyelids and eye) for foreign bodies, including contact lenses - evert the upper lid (technique, see Figs 2.25-2.28). 4. Hazy cornea, elderly patient, general debility, extreme eye pain and visual loss suggests acute glaucoma (see p. 41). A partial or total cataract may be associated with a penetrating injury if the history is suggestive.

Ask Directly

Contact lens overwear (usually due to sleeping with lenses in) and failure to adequately rinse them after using cleaning solution is common thyroid disease. Consider thyroid eye disease which may present with conjunctival chemosis, erythema and discomfort and can occur in a euthyroid patient


If diplopia (double vision), decreased vision or afferent pupil defect is present admit immediately under the ophthalmologists for intravenous antibiotics. 3. If there are no systemic or ocular features other than lid involvement in an adult, treat with oral antibiotics such as oral Magnapen 500 mg four times daily and refer to the ophthalmologist within 24 hours.

Ian P Howard and Levels of Perception

In the summer of 2001, many scientists with various connections to Dr. Ian Por-teous Howard met in Toronto to acknowledge Ian's influence on their lives and work. Many of the attendees had direct connections with Ian such as his graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. Others had more indirect reasons to want to be there. For example Ian has influenced many people through his well-thumbed books on visual perception. Ian is a man of diverse interests and has made significant contributions to many areas including size-weight judgements, interocular transfer, colour, stereopsis, perception of disparities and binocular vision, eye movement control, perhaps especially torsion and its connection to binocular vision, and the perception of self-motion and orientation. Ian has always been interested in the history of the scientific investigation of these problems also, delighting in models of ancient stereoscopes and the like, and becoming a champion of Al Hazen. Ian points out (Howard,...

Development of the

Growth factors are soluble molecules that provide the chemical signals in the earliest stages of embryonic development. There are certain substances that participate and control the normal development of the eye influencing the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of cells. Fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor- and insulin-like growth factor-I are essential for the normal development of the eye 4 . They not only provide signals for the differentiation of cells in the region of the eye, but they also regulate the level of expression of homeobox genes. These latter genes function as the mechanism for controlling the overall arrangement of the eye as an organ. Visual acuity is dependent upon the precise spatial arrangement of the cells of the eye. Therefore, the expression of homeobox genes at the appropriate level and time are critical.

Preface to the Second Edition

The success in refractive corneal surgery has significantly increased since the introduction of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) described in Sect. 4.1. The quality of caries removal can be improved with the application of ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range as discussed in Sect. 4.2. Furthermore, descriptive graphics have been added as in Sects. 3.2 and 4.10, and the reference section has been updated with the newest citations available on each topic.

Levels of Perception

Part III looks at Eye Movements and Perception. Ian has had a strong interest in this topic and the inevitable, interactive connection between eye movement control and perception. Abadi, Clement, and Gowen discuss levels of fixation. Schor considers the factors that contribute to the near response, sometimes called the triple response, in which vergence, accommodation, and pupil size are adjusted as a family when looking at close objects. The control of vergence eye movements is discussed by Takemura, Kawano, Quaia, and Miles. Steinbach reviews the controversial debate about how we know where our eyes are pointing and compares the use of corollary discharge, or outflow information, with in-flowing proprioceptive sensory information.

Physical Characteristics of Bears

Tailed mammals with long skulls and short snouts. Most bears have thick fur. All have five toes with nonretractile claws on each foot. Some have claws modified for climbing and some for digging. Bears are plantigrade, walking on the entire sole of the foot. Even lacking some of the modifications for speed possessed by canids and ungulates, some bears can run forty miles per hour. Bears have good, but not exceptional, eyesight and hearing. Their sense of smell, however, is excellent and greatly aids them in finding food.

Ocular Manifestations

Ocular manifestations include anterior uveitis, scleri-tis and episcleritis. They occur in about 5 of patients with UC anterior uveitis is more frequent in UC whereas milder ocular manifestations are more frequent in CD. Rare ocular manifestations include scleromalacia, cataract and retinal vessel problems. Ocular complications are usually associated with active bowel disease.

Screening For Retinopathy

A yearly dilated fundoscopic examination is recommended, beginning at diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes and after 3-5 years in those with type 1 diabetes. It is recommended that this examination be done by an ophthalmologist or optometrist who is knowledgeable and experienced in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. Yearly screening allows die detection of diabetic retinopathy at its earliest stages, permitting close follow-up and laser treatment, as appropriate. It also allows other types of diabetes-associated eye disease to be identified, such as cataracts, as well as common eye problems such as glaucoma. The availability of laser therapy for diabetic retinopathy has made a significant difference in preserving eyesight. Moreover, the detection of eye disease early in the course, when there is minimal to no functional disruption, offers the additional opportunity to

The Treatment of Acute Attacks

Prednisone, and others continue to be commonly used to shorten the attack. These potent anti-inflammatory drugs diminish the swelling within the brain and spinal cord that is seen as cells of the immune system invade and attack the nervous system. They do not appear to alter the long term course of the disease. They are clearly associated with osteoporosis, cataracts, psychological changes, skin acne, weight gain, and salt and water imbalance. Thus their effect on acute attacks must be weighed against potential problems from the treatment.

Are the Cognitive Changes During Acute Hypoglycaemia Important and Valid

Just as more studies that examine the practical cognitive aspects of hypoglycaemia would be useful, so would more studies of the brain's processing efficiency. Cognitive tests typically involve a melange of inseparable mental processes, and yet very specific aspects of the human brain's activities can be measured in the clinical laboratory (Massaro, 1993). Studies of the cognitive effects of hypoglycaemia have thus begun to address the impairments to various cognitive domains in more detail. Basic, specific aspects of visual and auditory processing have been examined during acute hypoglycaemia in non-diabetic humans. Standard tests of visual acuity - those that are measured by an optometrist - are not affected by hypoglycaemia, but other aspects of vision are affected (McCrimmon et al., 1996). These include This means that the ability to see the environment changes in important ways during hypoglycaemia. Visual acuity is preserved, as tested by the ability to read black letters on a...

Symptoms Resulting from the Size and Location of the Tumor

Another common symptom caused by the size and location of the tumor is decreased vision. This usually presents as temporal visual field defects, although other visual field loss may also occur. It is caused by the tumor growing upward out of the sella and pressing on the optic chiasm. The decrease in peripheral vision may be quite extensive without the patient realizing it, because people tend to rely on central, rather than peripheral, vision for most daily activities. Other less common vision complaints include diplopia. This results from the tumor extending laterally into the cavernous sinus and compressing the cranial nerves controlling extraocular muscle function.

Monitoring and Managing Adverse Reactions

The nurse monitors for any changes in visual acuity and promptly reports any visual changes to the primary health care provider. Vision changes are usually reversible if the drug is discontinued as soon as symptoms appear. The patient may need assistance with ambulation if visual disturbances occur. Psychic disturbances may occur. If the patient appears depressed, withdrawn, noncommunicative, or has other personality changes, the nurse must report the problem to the primary health care provider.

Regulation of TCell Activity by Aqueous Humor

In aqueous humor, the concentration of TGF- 2 is between 1 and 10ng ml 1-3 and most (< 10 ) of the TGF-p2 is in its latent form 41 . In healthy aqueous humor, only the TGF- 2 isoform is expressed. This is interesting since mRNA for all three TGF-P isoforms is found in cells of the eye, but only the TGF- 2 protein is found in aqueous humor of healthy eyes 1, 42, 43 . The isoform TGF- 2 has also been found to be an important cytokine of other immune-privileged tissues that promote the induction of macrophages that mediate an anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID)-like immune response 44 .

Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) is one of the most common inherited human myopathies, affecting 1 in 8,000 to 18,000 people. It shows autosomal dominant inheritance with high penetrance. The hallmark of the disease is muscle stiffness (myotonia), which results from repetitive bursts of electrical activity in the muscle, and can be observed in the electromyogram. Muscle wasting and weakness also occur. In addition, patients may experience oph-thalamic (cataracts, ptosis), endocrine, cardiac, and mental problems. When the gene is inherited from the female parent, the condition may present in childhood, but more usually it becomes clinically overt between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients usually present with weakness of the hands and difficulty in walking.

Studies of significant vs nonsignificant risk devices

Premarket regulatory review of medical devices has a risk-based component. Thus, all clinical investigations undertaken to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a medical device must be conducted in accordance with the Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) regulation 41 . Certain clinical investigations of devices may be exempt from the IDE regulation 42 , except in certain cases 43 . Unless exempt from the IDE regulation, the risk, i.e. 'significant risk' (SR) or 'nonsignificant risk' (NSR), of the investigational device must be determined. A SR device study is defined 44 as a study of a device that presents a potential for serious risk to the health, safety, or welfare of a subject and (a) is intended as an implant or (b) is used in supporting or sustaining human life or (c) is of substantial importance in diagnosing, curing, mitigating or treating disease, or otherwise prevents impairment of human health or (d) otherwise presents a potential for serious risk to the health,...

Radionuclide techniques

Bone scintigraphy has been used widely for examination of patients suspected of having osteomyelitis. All nuclear medicine modalities use one or more of the stages of the functional cataract of inflammation or infection, which are activated as a part of the defense mechanisms of the host.

Complement and Ocular Diseases

Of the 44 million annual visits to ophthalmologists, more than half are by elderly (> 65) persons 13 . This elderly population will grow from 34.4 million in 2000 to 70.3 million by 2030, with the number of persons older than 85 years growing slightly faster - from 4.1 to 8.9 million 14 . Among the elderly, AMD is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States and Western Europe 15 . Nearly 2 million Americans over the age of 55 are diagnosed with AMD each year. Approximately 230,000 of those affected have been declared legally blind. Between 1991 and 1999, the prevalence of AMD among the elderly increased from 5 to 25.6 , and with the aging of the 'baby boomer' generation, AMD is projected to affect the sight of over 6 million people 16 .

Terminological Standardization within TOSCA

A system has been developed within the TOSCA project to establish a common terminology. As an example in the next paragraph a solution for glaucoma is described. The terminology system enables the integration of different systems 2.1.1 Terms for Glaucoma Terms concerning glaucoma relevant for the TOSCA project have been collected according to the structure used for diabetic retinopathy. As no prior experience and sources could be derived from the OPHTEL project, the terms for glaucoma were collected from the following sources The American Academy of Ophthalmology, Preferred Practice Pattern Primary open-angle glaucoma suspect, 1995, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, Preferred Practice Pattern Primary open-angle glaucoma, 1996, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, Preferred Practice Pattern Primary angle-closure glaucoma, 1996, Duane's Ophthalmology on CD-ROM, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1996 European Glaucoma Society Terminology and guidelines for glaucoma, 1998, Hoskins, D.,...

Mustang Terminology Server

SNOMED nomenclature, MeSH thesaurus, ICD-10 and ICPM classification) can be used as a possible basis for standardization. However, these key systems are standalone vocabularies and are inadequately maintained as far as software engineering is concerned. With the aim of creating an ophthalmology platform health service, a suitable architecture of terminological services with a clearly defined server has been established. This server communicates with the information broker and subsystems as well. All TOSCA applications rely on a telemedical infrastructure for communication, based on established and new technical standards, such as XML for data transfer via networks, DICOM for image transfer and HTTPS for the interaction of different application systems within the telemedical communications infrastructure. All sensitive patient-related data is transferred according to European safety standards. The communication platform includes brokering services,...

Medical Complications of Glucose Intolerance and Diabetes Mellitus

Macrovascular disease in the form of atherosclerosis increases the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke, accounting for much of the disability and death among diabetic patients (Haupt and Newcomer 2001 Henderson 2001a). According to data amassed by Gerstein and his colleagues from large samples of patients without diabetes (Gerstein et al. 1999), even modest increases in fasting plasma glucose levels that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus put patients at increased risk for coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and other vascular problems. In peripheral sites, atherosclerosis can cause claudication and diabetic foot, a condition in which patients develop nonhealing ulcers that are prone to infection on their lower extremities and feet as a result of vascular insufficiency and sensory deficits from impairments in the peripheral nervous system. Diabetic neuropathy is a complication that contributes...

Challenges Facing Clinical Care

Healthcare professionals need to share healthcare information with a growing range of professional colleagues, often on multiple sites. Patients are often under the care of more than one team or speciality at the same time for example, a diabetic patient may be under a diabetologist, an ophthalmologist, a nephrologist, a dietician, a wheelchair clinic, their GP and a District Nurse. The National Health Service in England alone handles 1 million admissions and 37 million outpatient attendances per annum, requiring high quality and efficient communications between 2,500 hospitals and 10,000 general practices. Records also need to be efficiently transferred when a patient moves and seeks care at a new institution.

Educating the Patient and Family

Patients required to take a drug over a long period may incur lapses in their drug schedule. For some, it is a matter of occasionally forgetting to take a drug for others, a lapse may be caused by other factors, such as failure to understand the importance of drug therapy, inability to instill an eye drug (when the drug is prescribed for glaucoma), the cost of the drug, or unfamiliarity with the consequences associated with discontinuing the drug therapy. GLAUCOMA. When a cholinergic drug is prescribed for glaucoma, the nurse instructs the patient and a family member in instillation of the eye drops (see Patient and Family Teaching Checklist Instilling Liquid Eye Medications). If a family member is to instill the drug, the nurse allows time for instruction as well as supervised practice of the procedure. The nurse warns the patient that the eye drops may sting when instilled into the eye and that this is a normal, but often temporary, discomfort. The nurse advises the patient to...

Critical Thinking Exercises

Johnson, age 78 years, has glaucoma and is prescribed the pilocarpine ocular system. On a visit too the outpatient clinic, Mr. Johnson tells you that he is having problems retaining the ocular system You notice that his right eye is very red and inflamed. Determine how you can investigate this problem further with Mr. Johnson. Provide suggestions that will help Mr. Johnson to retain the system.

Preadministration Assessment

Before administering a cholinergic blocking drug to a patient for the first time, the nurse obtains a thorough health history as well as a history of the signs and symptoms of the current disorder. The focus of the initial physical assessment depends on the reason for administering the drug. In most instances, the nurse obtains the blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate. The nurse also may include additional assessments, such as checking the stool of the patient who has a peptic ulcer for color and signs of occult blood, determining visual acuity in the patient with glaucoma, or looking for signs of dehydration and weighing the patient if prolonged diarrhea is one of the patient's symptoms.

Adverse Effects of Steroids

Three broad groups can be identified, although 50 of patients report no adverse event. Early effects are mainly due to high doses and include cosmetic effects (acne, moon face, oedema), sleep and mood disturbance, dyspepsia, or glucose intolerance. Effects associated with prolonged use (usually 12 weeks) include posterior subcapsular cataracts, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, myopathy, and susceptibility to infections. Effects during withdrawal include acute adrenal insufficiency (from sudden cessation), a syndrome of myalgia, malaise, and arthralgia (similar to recrudescence of UC), or raised intracranial pressure. Complete steroid withdrawal is facilitated by early introduction of azathioprine, adjuvant nutritional therapy, or timely surgery.

Mechanism of Ocular Allergy

In all forms of allergic eye disease, the clinical response is due to mast cell activation either directly via antigen-mast cell linkage, or by T cell activation of mast cells, resulting in mast cell release of inflammatory factors and cytokines. In the milder forms of allergic eye disease, such as seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC), mast cell numbers Conjunctival mast cells exist in two forms, characterized by their staining pattern to the proteases tryptase and chymase. The MCtc form (found in the skin) contains both tryptase and chymase, and the MCT form (found in mucus membranes and increased in aero-allergen-driven disease) contains tryptase only 8 . The latter is increased in allergic eye disease.

Nutritional deficiency

Salagen (pilocarpine hydrochloride) tablets are indicated for the treatment of symptoms of xerostomia from salivary gland hypofunction. As a cholinergic parasympathetic agent, pilocarpine can increase secretion of the salivary glands. The usual initial dose is 5 mg tid. It is contraindicated in patients with asthma, iritis, and narrow angle glaucoma. Side effects include abdominal cramps and sweating. Lubrication of the mouth and mild secretagogs, such as lemon-flavored juice or lubricating agents proper (water, methylcellulose), are useful. More potent secretagogs may exacerbate the signs and symptoms of parotitis. Prevention of states of dehydration in SS is very important, as dehydration may enhance the formation of parotid ductal calculi. Avoidance of drugs that may aggravate oral dryness (e.g., narcotics, antihistamines, anticholinergics) is also important.

Seasonal and Perennial Allergic Conjunctivitis

The medical treatment of SAC and PAC includes topical vasoconstrictors and the H1 receptor blocker, olopatadine. The combined treatment with both of these agents provides greater relief. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromogly-cate is used for prevention rather than treatment, inhibiting the initial release of inflammatory mediators. The use of steroids remains limited to serious symptoms and its long-term use could result in cataract and glaucoma.

Vernal and Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

VKC and AKC are the most severe atopic disorders because of their chronic-ity and their potential to involve the cornea and subsequently impair vision. The role of genetic and environmental factors remains unclear. Vernal disease is commonly seen in pediatric patients and it is characterized by intense pruritus and copious mucus secretion, giant papillae in the upper tarsus and the presence of gelatinous nodules around the limbus, with or without Trantas dots 1 . AKC is found in atopic dermatitis patients and is the most severe of the allergic conjunctival diseases 34, 35 . Occasionally, these patients may have episcleritis, scleritis and even uveitis - whether these disorders are related to atopy or are just chance associations remains unknown. Individuals suffering from generalized allergic disorders are at a greater risk of contact lens-induced allergy. Fig. 1. a Upper tarsal conjunctiva in a contact lens-wearing patient showing giant papillary reaction. b Upper fornix (double...

Miscellaneous vasculitides

The most common clinical manifestation is a destructive auricular chondritis with sparing of the ear lobule. Articular symptoms are second in frequency and are usually self-limited, with a nonerosive oligoarticular or polyarticular peripheral arthritis. Inflammatory eye disease may also occur. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis causing skin lesions and aneurysms of the thoracic-abdominal aorta and cerebral artery can occur. In 30 of cases, there is an association with rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, WG, microscopic polyangiitis, and malignancies (including carcinoma of the lung, breast, and 1. The clinical presentation is characterized by recurrent oral and genital aphthous ulceration, chronic relapsing uveitis, and a variety of skin manifestations, including the pathergy reaction (nonspecific hyperreactivity of the skin), erythema nodosum, and superficial thrombophlebitis. Uveitis can lead to blindness in up to 20 of patients with eye disease. Male and young...

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The TCAs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drugs. Doxepin is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma or in those with a tendency for urinary retention. The TCAs are not given within 14 days of the MAOIs, in patients with a recent myocardial infarction, or during pregnancy or lactation. These drugs are Pregnancy Category C drugs (except imipramine, which is Pregnancy Category B), and the safety of their use during

Preparing the Patient for Local Anesthesia

Depending on the procedure performed, preparing the patient for local anesthesia may or may not be similar to preparing the patient for general anesthesia. For example, administering a local anesthetic for dental surgery or for suturing a small wound may require that the nurse explain to the patient how the anesthetic will be administered, take a patient's allergy history, and when applicable, prepare the area to be anesthetized, which may involve cleaning the area with an antiseptic or shaving the area. Other local anesthetic procedures may require the patient to be in a fasting state because a sedative may also be administered. The nurse may administer an intravenous sedative such as the antianxiety drug diazepam (Valium) (see Chap. 30) during some local anesthetic procedures, such as cataract surgery or surgery performed under spinal anesthesia.

Gerontologic Alert

Preanesthetic drugs may be omitted in those 60 years or older because many of the medical disorders for which these drugs are contraindicated are seen in older individuals. For example, atropine and glycopyrrolate, drugs that can be used to decrease secretions of the upper respiratory tract, are con-traindicated in certain medical disorders, such as prostatic hypertrophy, glaucoma, and myocardial ischemia. Other pre-anesthetic drugs that depress the central nervous system (CNS), such as narcotics, barbiturates, and antianxiety drugs with or without antiemetic properties, may be contraindicated in the older individual.

Clinical and Endoscopic Findings

Even though painless facial and skull deformities are the most frequently observed signs, symptoms such as nasal obstruction, headache, epistaxis, anosmia, loosening of teeth, facial paralysis, hearing loss, trigeminal neuralgia-like pain, and recurrent rhinosinusitis due to drainage impairment may develop (Bollen et al. 1990 Camilleri 1991 Ferguson 1994 Slootweg et al. 1994 Wenig et al. 1995 Redaelli De Zinis et al. 1996 Chong and Tang 1997 Commins et al. 1998 Muraoka et al. 2001 Cheng et al. 2002). Diplopia, proptosis, loss of visual acuity due to optic nerve compression, epiphora, limitation of ocular motility are other important symptoms and signs indicating an involvement of the orbit and or of the lacrymal pathways (Moore et al. 1985 Osguthorpe and Gudeman 1987 Johnson et al. 1991 Slootweg et al. 1994 Wenig et al. 1995 Redaelli De Zinis et al. 1996). Since both diseases display a submucosal pattern of growth, nasal endoscopy is often negative or shows a lesion covered by intact...

And Laboratory Investigations

Most children with Hurler syndrome manage to walk, but develop only limited language skills. They have a characteristic appearance. Prominent features are relative macrocephaly, a prominent forehead, coarse facial features, hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, prominent bushy eyebrows, thick and dry hair, hir-sutism, thick skin, enlarged tongue, hypertrophic gums, short and broad hands with stubby fingers, short and broad feet, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and a protuberant abdomen, frequently with umbilical and inguinal hernias. On physical examination hepatosplenomegaly is found. Patients experience increasing joint stiffness and limitation of joint mobility, which may begin in early infancy. The preferentially affected joints are shoulders, fingers, and wrists. Deformities become apparent with claw hands and flexion contractures of elbows and knees. Vision becomes impaired due to progressive corneal clouding. Glaucoma, optic atrophy, and pigmentary retinal...


The decongestants are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity, hypertension, and severe coronary artery disease. These drugs are also contraindicated in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Naphazoline is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma.

The Big the Old and the Immortal

In such age-related disorders as cataracts, vascular degeneration among diabetics, and possibly atherosclerosis Athird theory points to the buildup of toxins inside cells, and a fourth concerns the potential problems that come from errors in metabolism or viral infection which slowly impair or kill cells. Fifth, the somatic mutations theory proposes that chance mutations accumulate in a person's nuclear or mitochondrial genome and induce cell death or produce proteins and enzymes that have aging effects.

Multipurpose Exam Room

Ophthalmologists used to arrange their offices so that different tests were performed in different rooms. Some ophthalmologists may still practice that way. However, it is far more efficient for the patient to remain in one room. Each time the patient has to gather his belongings and move to another room, then again get comfortable, valuable time (and money) is lost. For most ophthalmology practices, a complete examination and treatment can be done in the same room with the patient in the same chair.

Terminology and Classification

If the artery has been divided and has retracted into the posterior compartment of the eye, this is a different situation as it can raise the intraorbital pressure and impair vision. Under these circumstances, no attempt should be made to find and tie the artery. This will cause more damage as the anterior ethmoid artery has retracted within the substance of the orbit and be

Epidemiology and Classification of Uveitis

Uveitis is responsible for over 2.8 of blindness in the United States. Each year, 17.6 of active uveitis patients experience a transient or permanent loss of vision, with 12.5 developing glaucoma 4 . The incidence and prevalence of uveitis has been difficult to determine because the disease is not reportable to the health authorities and is treated in an ambulatory setting. More recently, the epidemiology of the disease in the US has been affected by the aging of the population, racial diversity and an increasing incidence of autoimmune disease. Historically, an incidence rate of 17 100,000 person-years and a prevalence ratio of 204 100,000 over a 10-year period has been reported 5 . However, a recent report from the Northern California Epidemiology of Uveitis Study 6 suggested a higher disease rate for the older population, particularly women, with a higher incidence of chronic disease. Recurrence rates after an initial episode of uveitis in Great Britain showed that 11.3 of patients...

Lowes Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome

Lowe's oculocerebrorenal syndrome is an X-linked disease which affects the kidneys, the brain and the lens of the eye. Patients exhibit profound mental retardation, blindness as a result of cataracts, glaucoma, and microphthalmos (literally, small eyes). The renal defect manifests principally as proteinuria and rickets. Lowe's oculocerebrorenal syndrome is not caused by mutations in the IP3 receptor itself, but instead results from defective regulation of Ca2+ release due to impairment of IP3 metabolism.

Significance of the Orientations of the Channels

Since the VOR is a phylogenetically ancient eye movement control system found even in animals with no saccadic system (Walls, 1962), the fact that the VOR uses a plane close to Listing's plane, defined in terms of optimal use of information from the canals, may be connected to the evolutionary origin of Listing's plane itself.

Office Based Surgery

It is a matter of personal preference whether an ophthalmologist chooses to do surgery (nonlaser) within the office. Some may elect, for a variety of reasons, to use an ambulatory surgical center located in the medical office building or one located in a nearby hospital. The advantages of performing surgery in one's office are convenience for the patient, convenience in scheduling procedures, and revenue generated for the medical practice. Disadvantages include the initial cost to create a surgery facility that meets state licensing and or Medicare certification criteria, the cost of equipping it, additional coverage, and the risks assumed, however slight, when performing surgery outside the hospital or ambulatory surgical center settings. Since eye surgery is generally not elective in nature, a physician would want to be certain the office-based surgery facility meets requirements for reimbursement by third-party payers. In fact, the majority of patients needing surgery are over 65...

Humoral Immune Response

The evidence that the humoral immune response also favors the onset and or progression of neurodegeneration in some glaucoma patients is found in studies of autoantibodies in glaucoma patient sera or tissues and studies of autoantibody-mediated toxicity to RGCs in experimental models. For example, there is an increased prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy 15 and elevated serum titers of autoantibodies to many optic nerve 16 and retinal antigens 17-20 in patients with glaucoma. There is also evidence of immune globulin deposition in the glaucomatous retina 21 . It has been proposed that peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy, commonly present in glaucomatous eyes 22 , may be the site for a facilitated access of serum antibodies to the retina 21 , since the blood-retina barrier is disrupted in these areas. Increased autoantibodies in the serum of glaucoma patients include those to heat shock proteins, e.g. hsp60, hsp27, and a-crystallins 18, 19 . The increased titers of serum autoantibodies...

Timing Of Radiotherapy

There is considerable debate about the appropriate timing of radiotherapy in patients with residual nonfunctioning adenoma after surgery. Although postoperative radiotherapy is effective with a low risk of subsequent recurrence, the indolent natural history of pituitary adenoma means that a proportion of patients remain with a static tumor for long periods and some may avoid the need for irradiation. However, a policy of observation requires close surveillance with regular imaging and ophthalmologic assessments and, occasionally, a need for a second surgical intervention with consequent morbidity. Currently, there are no hard data to define the most appropriate timing of radiotherapy (immediate vs delayed), and a randomized study comparing the two policies is required. Such a study should particularly concentrate on the endpoints of long-term effects of the tumor and therapy in terms of functional outcome and survival.

Circulatory Systems Of Lesser Volume

The bulbus oculi (eyeball) and the inner ear are fluid-filled hollow organs. Such organs have their own internal circulatory systems. In the case of the bulbus oculi, the fluid is the aqueous humor. In the case of the inner ear, the fluid is the endolymph perilymph. In such cases, the fluids are produced from fluids of arterial vessels and then are picked up by venous vessels. Should the drainage pattern be interrupted, fluids will accumulate and cause increased pressure within the hollow organ. The increased pressure will interfere with the organ functions examples are glaucoma of the eye and deafness of the ear.

Lasers in Neurosurgery

The application of lasers in neurosurgery has been extremely slow compared with other medical fields, e.g. ophthalmology. This was mainly due to two reasons. First, studies by Rosomoff and Caroll (1966) revealed that the ruby laser was not of great help in neurosurgery. Second, initial experiments with the CO2 laser were performed at too high energy levels, e.g. by Stellar et al. (1970), which was dangerous and completely unnecessary. It then took some time until Ascher (1979), Beck (1980), and Jain (1983) reawakened interest in neurosurgical lasers, especially moderate CO2 lasers and Nd YAG lasers. The principal advantages of lasers in neurosurgery are evident. Lasers are able to cut, vaporize, and coagulate tissue without mechanical contact. This is of great significance when dealing with very sensitive tissues. Simultaneous coagulation of blood vessels eliminates dangerous hemorrhages which are extremely life-threatening when occurring inside the brain. Moreover, the area of...

Degenerative Diseases

Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly attacks people in their 20s or 30s and progresses at intervals and at varying rates. It involves patchy loss of myelin with hardening (sclerosis) of tissue in the CNS. The symptoms include vision problems, tingling or numbness in the arms and legs, urinary incontinence, tremor, and stiff gait. MS is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, but the exact cause is not known.

Ostriches And Related Birds

Male ostriches are black with white plumes on their tail and wings. Females are grayish-brown. The head and legs are featherless. The neck is covered with down and is red or grayish. The ostrich has huge eyes with long protective lashes and has keen eyesight for spotting danger a long way off. It can make loud hissing and roaring noises.

Discussion and Conclusions

The combined results of our studies of VO and PVP neuron discharges during active head-on-body motion also lead to a third important question Does the brain have access to reliable vestibular sensory information during active gaze shifts and gaze pursuit via some route independent of the vestibular nuclei Vestibular afferents project strongly to cerebellar regions involved in vestibular and eye movement control, namely, the nodulus uvula, the flocullus, and the fastigial nucleus (reviewed in Voogd et al., 1996), as well as diffusely to other regions of the vestibulocerebellar vermis (Kotchabkakdi and Walberg, 1978). A reliable estimate of head-in-space motion may be encoded by these pathways during voluntary gaze shifts and gaze pursuit (Figure 16.10, pathway B). The projection to the

Neural Encoding of Gaze Dependencies During Translation

To maintain binocular visual acuity during head movements, compensatory eye movements in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) exhibit a systematic dependence on gaze parameters, including vergence angle and eye position. To investigate if and how these dependencies are reflected in neural activities, the firing rates of eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei were examined during translation (0.5 - 5 Hz). Motion was delivered along different heading directions and animals were required to fixate head-fixed or earth-stationary targets at different distances and eccentricities. All cells exhibited changes in sensitivity with vergence angle during lateral translation, and these changes were appropriate to drive the respective eye movements. Furthermore, neurons also exhibited a dependence on gaze and heading directions, as expected from the equivalent dependence of eye velocity in the TVOR. These results argue against dynamic co-contraction as a major...

Defining Extent of Disease

The ophthalmologic examination will determine the extent of intraocular tumor and presence or absence of orbital extension. It is crucial that intraocular examination with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope be performed on both eyes with the pupils maximally dilated. The ophthalmologist should use diagrams of the retina to show the number, size, and location of all tumors. These diagrams are now being supplemented by the use of RetCam images, which are helpful in determining not only the extent of disease, but response to treatment. When the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope is used, the location of the tumor(s) should be related to specific landmarks such as the optic nerve head, fovea, and ora serrata. Size of the lesion is estimated by comparison with the optic nerve head diameter.

The examination of the eye

General inspection 243 Visual function tests 244 Visual acuity 244 Colour vision 245 Visual fields 245 Detailed inspection 245 Common abnormalities 246 Eyelids 246 Lacrimal apparatus 246 Conjunctiva 247 Sclera 247 Cornea 247 Iris 248 Lens 248 An accurate history is essential. As vision is the most important sense in man. tear of blindness makes patients especially anxious about eye problems. This should be appreciated while taking the history. The character of pain in eye disease falls into four main categories eye strain Deep severe pain. Severe eye pain is distressing and often associated with nausea and vomiting. It is vaguely localised to the eye and brow. It is characteristic of intraocular inflammatory disease (uveitis, scleritis and endophthalmitis) and of high intraocular pressure (acute glaucoma). The eye is usually very red. Similar pain occurs in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (shingles affecting the first division of the V nerve) and intracranial aneurysms pressing on the V...

Types Of Sensory Processes

Cones are receptors that function primarily in daylight or highly illuminated visual circumstances. They are concentrated toward the center of the eye, particularly in the fovea, an area directly across from the lens where maximum visual acuity occurs. Cones provide the receptors for color vision and sharp details. Visual Dysfunctions. Several fairly common visual dysfunctions exist. Obviously, the most severe is total blindness, which often results from traumatic damage to nerve tissue. Nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism are dysfunctions in which the rays that are received are not focused properly on the retina. Correction by the use of glasses or contact lenses or by laser surgery is often possible.

Toxicity Related FollowUp

This is largely dependent on the therapy received. For those treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, a history and physical examination should be performed at least every 3 months until 2 years off therapy, then every 6 months until 5 years off therapy, then yearly. A visual acuity assessment should be conducted at least yearly. Attention should be made for late effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, growth and development, and surveillance for SMNs. Parents (and patients as they get older) should be counseled regarding their risk of SMN and should have a comprehensive risk-directed evaluation annually lifelong. Ophthalmology (at least every 4-6 weeks initially until no tumor progression, then at least every 3 months

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

Glaucoma is an increase in the IOP that, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Normally the eye is filled with aqueous humor in an amount that is carefully regulated to maintain the shape of the eyeball. In glaucoma, aqueous humor is increased, which causes the IOP to rise and can, without treatment, damage the retina. Acetazolamide (Diamox) is used in the treatment of simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma when delay of surgery is desired to lower the IOP. These drugs are also used in the treatment of edema caused by congestive heart failure (CHF), drug-induced edema, and control of epilepsy (absence formerly petit mal and non-localized seizures). Methazolamide (Neptazane) is used in the treatment of glaucoma.

Bacterial Virulence Influences Outcome

E. faecalis is frequently isolated from infected filtering blebs following glaucoma surgery, and is the cause of 4-8 of POE. Visual outcomes of E. faecalis endophthalmitis are frequently poor, with as many as 80 of cases resulting in a final visual acuity of 20 200 or worse 13 .

Epidemiological contributions to IOL evaluation

Cataract is generally defined as an opacification or loss of transparency in the crystalline lens of the eye. The clinical consequence of such opacification of the lens is reduction of the visual acuity. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide 1 . It is also the leading cause of vision loss in the USA 2 . An estimated 20.5 million (17.2 ) Americans older than 40 years have cataract in either eye 3 . Many risk factors of age-related cataract have been identified during the past 20 years 4-6 . To date, however, the only treatment known to eliminate existing cataract is surgical removal of the lens. Historically, cataract patients had an intracapsular cataract extraction followed by aphakic spectacles. The modern era of implantation of an artificial lens at the time of cataract extraction began with Harold Ridley. During World War II, many ophthalmologists had noted that perforating eye injuries from airplane canopies made from acrylic Perspex plastic often resulted in...

Perceptual Disturbances Related to Abnormalities of Torsion

Foveate animals have explicit ocular motor requirements for best vision. Images of objects of interest must be brought to the fovea, where visual acuity is highest, and kept there, relatively still, for a long enough period of time so that the brain can interpret what is happening in the visual scene. The map of the visual world upon the retina is, of course, two-dimensional, and hence to move the fovea to its center we rotate the globe around two axes (horizontal and vertical) that are orthogonal. But there is a third degree of freedom that allows for torsion eye movements that rotate the globe around an axis that is roughly parallel to the

Chlorambucil Leukeran

Ophthalmologic examination (color testing, visual fields, funduscopy, slit-lamp examination) should be performed every 4 to 6 months. Complete blood cell count should be performed periodically. At the first sign of visual disturbance, the drug should be discontinued. Hydroxychloroquine may cause hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The drug is contraindicated in patients with significant visual, hepatic, or renal impairment, or porphyria, and during pregnancy.

Weasels And Related Mammals

Weasels, like most mustelids, are carnivores. They eat other animals, carrion, and insects. All weasels have keen eyesight, keen smell, and are excellent hunters. They are bloodthirsty, often killing for fun and leaving prey carcasses uneaten. Humans hunt weasels in response to their bloodthirsty natures and for their beautiful, soft fur. This is especially true of weasels that live in cold climates and grow white winter coats that collectively provide ermine.

Retinal And Vitreous Infections

Cataract surgery Corneal transplantation surgery Glaucoma surgery Retinal-vitreous surgery Postoperative endophthalmitis can manifest early or late in the postoperative period. Early postoperative endophthalmitis typically occurs within the first week after surgery. Patients will typically present complaining of severe ocular pain and decreased vision. On examination, these patients will show intraocular and periocular inflammation in excess of the normal postoperative inflammatory response. Depending on the severity of the infection, patients may also demonstrate frank purulence at the surgical wound site, purulent conjunctival discharge, or a hypopyon in the anterior chamber. It is important to note that most cases of endophthalmitis following cataract extraction occur early. In the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS), for example, the median time to presentation was 6 d and about 80 of patients presented within 2 wk of cataract surgery (16). Late or delayed-onset postoperative...

Cones and Color Vision

Photopsins Wavelengths

Cones are less sensitive than rods to light, but the cones provide color vision and greater visual acuity, as described in the next section. During the day, therefore, the high light intensity bleaches out the rods, and color vision with high acuity is provided by the cones. Humans and other primates have trichromatic color vision (are trichromats). This means that our perception of a multitude of colors is produced by stimulation of only three types of cones. This fact is exploited by television screens and computer monitors, which display only red, green, and blue pixels. Interestingly, other mammals that are able to see colors get by with only two types of cones (they are dichromats).

Optical Radiation Hazards

Effects of optical radiation at various wavelengths on various structures of the eye are shown in Figs. 5.1a-c. Actinic-ultraviolet, at wavelengths of 180 nm to 315 nm, is absorbed at the cornea. These wavelengths are responsible for welder's flash or photokemtitis. Near ultraviolet (UV-A) radiation between 315 nm and 400 nm is absorbed in the lens and may contribute to certain forms of cataracts. Far infrared (IR-C) radiation with wavelengths of 3 im to 1 mm is absorbed in the front surface of the eye. However, some middle infrared (IR-B) radiation between 1.4 im and 3 im penetrates deeper and may contribute to glass-blower's cataract. Extensive exposure to near infrared (IR-A) radiation may also contribute to such cataracts.

Freuds Specimen Dream of the Botanical Monograph

Freud's associations to his dream also included a revealing fantasy or daydream If ever I get glaucoma, I thought, I should travel to Berlin to get myself operated on incognito, in my friend's Fliess's house, by a surgeon recommended by him. The operating surgeon, who would have no idea of my identity, would boast once again of how easily such operations could be performed since the introduction of cocaine and I should not give the slightest hint that I myself had a share in the discovery (Freud 1900, p. 170).

Environmental Factors

Thalidomide Infants

Cataracts, glaucoma, heart defects, deafness, teeth Microcephaly, blindness, mental retardation, fetal death Microphthalmia, microcephaly, retinal dysplasia Limb hypoplasia, mental retardation, muscle atrophy Microcephaly, growth retardation Hydrocephalus, cerebral calcifications, microphthalmia Mental retardation, deafness

Disorders of the Retina

Medical Terminology Textbook 9th

Degeneration of the macula, the point of sharpest vision, is a common cause of visual problems in the elderly. When associated with aging, this deterioration is described as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macular degeneration typically affects central vision but not peripheral vision (Fig. 18-9). Other causes of macular degeneration are drug toxicity and hereditary diseases.

Laser Tissue Contouring And Restructuring

The two specific applications discussed here are for the use of lasers in der-matologic and ophthalmologic procedures. The theory of selective photother-molysis, introduced by Anderson and Parrish in 1981, is the basis for much advancement in dermatological lasers (Anderson and Parrish, 1983). It allows for highly localized destruction of light absorbing targets in skin, with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. To achieve selective photother- 1. Use of Visible or Near-Visible Infrared Laser Wavelengths to Treat Retinal Disease or Glaucoma. Examples are (i) diabetic retinopathy associated with capillary nonperfusion or swelling caused by leaking microa-neurysms, (ii) retinal vein occlusions that block ocular blood drainage causing retinal hemorrhage, ischemia, and swelling, (iii) age-related macular degeneration (discussed in Chapter 12, which discusses photo-dynamic therapy), which, in the wet-type neovascular tissue, invades normal retina, producing macular edema and...

Macrophages and Hepatocytes in Disorders of Iron Metabolism

Iron Transport Hepatocyte

Hereditary haemochromatosis (Camaschella et al., 2000) increased iron absorption parenchymal iron overload Friedreich's ataxia (Harding, 1981 Lamarche et al, 1984 Rotig et al., 1997) neurodegeneration and cardiac myopathy embryonic lethality Hereditary hyperferritinaemia-cataract syndrome (Girelli et al., 1995 Aguilar-Martinez et al., 1996 Mumford et al., 1998 Martin et al, 1998) Early embryonic lethality

Armadillos Anteaters And Sloths

The two-toed unau, Choloepus hoffmanni, is larger than the ai. Its neck has only seven vertebrae, and the animal has no tail. It has two claws on its front feet but three claws on its hind feet. Unlike the three-toed sloth, the unau can come down a tree headfirst and stand upright on all four feet. Its diet consists mainly of leaves, stems, and fruits. The eyesight and hearing of all sloths are not very well developed, and they usually find their way mainly by touch.

Other Neurological Disorders

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a multisystem disorder with myotonia, muscle weakness, cataracts, endocrine dysfunction, and intellectual impairment caused by a CTG triplet expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene on 19q13. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is frequently associated with an excessive daytime sleepiness in particular a short sleep latency and the presence of sleep onset REM periods during the MSLT, two characteristics observed in narcolepsy. CSF hypocretin-1 levels were measured in 7 patients in the literature with a mean average of CSF hcrt-1 significantly lower than that in normal controls.14,30 However, the significance of this latter result needs to be confirmed on a larger sample because only one patient had a low level and three had intermediate levels. Hypocretin-1 levels did not correlate clinically with disease severity or duration or with subjective or objective sleepiness reports. We therefore may propose that a dysfunction of the hypothalamic hypocretin...

Deficiency of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway

Abnormalities in mitochondrial genetics can produce a variety of myopathic disorders, from ophthalmologic states to myopathies associated with encephalopathy and lactic acidoses. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction can be manifested in different phenotypes affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle, the nervous system, and the kidneys. Diagnosis can be approached by family history, which may demonstrate a pattern of maternal inheritance microscopy of biopsied tissue demonstrating structural abnormalities of mitochondria (e.g., subsarcolemmal aggregates in myofibers, the so-called ragged red fibers) and biochemical studies demonstrating abnormalities in components of oxidative phosphorylation, such as cytochrome oxidase.

Treatment of Intraocular Retinoblastoma

Carboplatin in addition to systemic chemotherapy and other local ophthalmic therapies. The ophthalmologist makes a 3-mm incision in the conjunctiva and anterior tenons. A 5-cc syringe containing the carboplatin is fitted with an olive-tip irrigating cannula. The olive-tip cannula is placed through the conjunctival incision and is gently and bluntly passed through the posterior tenon's capsule while maintaining constant contact with the globe. Once the irrigating cannula has been passed posteriorly to its full extent, the opening in the conjunctiva and tenons is pulled tightly over the shank of the needle with a forceps and the carboplatin is slowly delivered into the retrobulbar space by gentle pressure on the syringe plunger. The cannula is withdrawn once the retrobulbar injection is complete. No sutures are necessary on the conjunctival incision but that is the surgeon's choice. A combination antibiotic ointment should be instilled into the conjunctival sac on completion of the...

The Role of Mast Cells

At 6 h there is a dose-dependent late phase response, with a second peak in tear concentrations of histamine and eosinophil cationic protein levels. Tryptase is not increased, suggesting that either mast cells are still degranulated, or that other cells such as basophils, whose conjunctival numbers are increased at this stage, are involved. The tissue adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, are increased at 6 h consistent with the increased conjunctival levels of granulocytes and eosinophils 11 . IgE is produced in the conjunctiva, under mast cell control, and most patients with allergic eye disease have a positive family history of atopy with raised serum and tear levels of allergen-specific IgE. Mast cells induce B cell IgE production independently of T cells, suggesting that mast cells may be involved in the autoregulation of IgE production through the CD40 CD40 ligand 12 . Mast cell release of histamine and leukotrienes contributes to the inflammatory response by...

Common Abnormalities Eyelids

Dysthyreoid Eye Disease

The lids normally cover the upper and lower margins of the iris. The palpebral fissures should be symmetrical. The palpebral aperture is narrowed in blepharospasm (spasm of the eyelids) and photophobia (light sensitivity), which are often associated with painful eye conditions. Photophobia also occurs in migraine and in association with meningeal irritation. Fig. 7.4 Proptosis and lower lid retraction in dysthyroid eye disease. Fig. 7.4 Proptosis and lower lid retraction in dysthyroid eye disease.

Complex I Nadh Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase

In addition to direct studies for 02 generation measurements, complex I deficiency (and its associated diseases) has been shown to generate AOS. Complex I deficiency displays a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from exercise intolerance to cataracts and development delay, which includes Leigh disease characterized by degeneration of basal ganglia and or cardiomyopathy with or without cataract, and fatal infantile lactic acidosis (101). A more detailed investigation showed the correlation of increased levels of expression ofMnSOD (a compensatory response) with a poor prognosis in complex I deficiency (91, 101). Excess AOS production is further complicated by damage to other systems such as mitochondrial aconitase, complex I, and succinate dehydrogenase which have functional Fe-S centers (site of 02' reactivity) (34). This damage is pronounced in MnSOD knockout mice where 02' produced in the mitochondria is not removed by the normal radical scavenger mechanisms (56).

F810 Specific reading disorder

The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the development of reading skills that is not solely accounted for by mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. Reading comprehension skill, reading word recognition, oral reading skill, and performance of tasks requiring reading may all be affected. Spelling difficulties are frequently associated with specific reading disorder and often remain into adolescence even after some progress in reading has been made. Specific developmental disorders of reading are commonly preceded by a history of disorders in speech or language development. Associated emotional and behavioural disturbances are common during the school age period. The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the development of spelling skills in the absence of a history of specific reading disorder, which is not solely accounted for by low mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. The ability to spell orally...

Unilateral Watery Rhinorrhea

Csf Meningocele Nasal Cavity

Patients with intermittent CSF leak frequently complain of headache, which appears whenever rhinorrhea stops and CSF pressure increases (Beckhardt et al. 1991). Symptoms and signs such as headache, vomit, or edema of the papilla are suggestive for intracranial hypertension. If CSF leak is secondary to a neoplasm of the sinonasal tract invading the skull base, nasal obstruction, mucous rhinorrhea, epistaxis, visual impairment, and alterations of eye motility may be present. Both intracra-nial neoplasms and lesions involving the skull base from adjacent sites may cause neurologic signs and symptoms.

FAP History Through a Patients Story

Genetic Tree

Hard times, well aware of the risk that she could suffer from the disease, too. In May 1998, when she was 17 years old, Rosa began to complain about a pain localised in the left side, which grew increasingly annoying. Her parents decided to subject the girl to a series of examinations. Rosa underwent colonoscopy, which revealed many polyps in the colon and rectum. Moreover, she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan (Fig. 2) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Fig. 3), which revealed a voluminous mass filling the left hemiabdomen and infiltrating the spleen, pancreas, kidney and left ureter. The diagnostic procedure included, moreover, an ophthalmology exam, which revealed congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. The cranial radiography did not reveal supernumerary teeth or osteomas. The diagnosis was then clear Gardner's syndrome.

Newly Identified Risks

Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the leading cause of blindness following general anesthesia. Depending on the surgical population, the incidence of ION has been estimated at between 0.1 and 1 (6). TDC has noted an increased incidence of claims involving postoperative blindness or severe visual impairment following spine surgeries in which controlled hypotension was utilized. Most of these cases involved an eventual diagnosis of ION (7). ION is a visual impairment that results from inadequate oxygen delivery by the vessels supplying the optic nerve. It is classified as anterior or posterior, depending on which part of the nerve is affected. The two parts of the nerve have different blood supplies. Anterior ION typically spares central vision and causes peripheral visual field defects, whereas posterior ION, resulting from infarction in the central retinal artery, is usually associated with central visual defects (6). Because the anterior nerve is intraorbital, anterior ION can be...