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Tapeworm, hematologic manifestations, 85 TAR syndrome, 109t, 270t, 277, 279 Target cells, abnormalities in anemia, 5t Tear drop cells, abnormalities in anemia, 6t Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, 255t, 291

hematologic manifestations, 76 Teratoma anatomic and histologic grading, 656t chemotherapy, 653t, 656 groups, 655

mediastinal, 653t, 657-658 ovarian, 657 prognosis, 656-657 radiotherapy, 656 surgery, 655-656 Testicular dysfunction, late effects of childhood cancer, 766-768, 767t Thalassemias, 181-191 a-thalassemia, 157, 182, 183t, 191 basic features, 181-182, 181/ P-thalassemia, 181-182, 182t biochemistry, 184 causes of death, 185-189 clinical features, 184-185 complications, 185 hematology, 184 heterozygous states, 1821 homozygous or doubly heterozygous states, 182t management of the acutely ill patient, 189-190 chelation therapy, 186-187, 188 gene therapy, 189

hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 189

hypertransfusion protocol, 185-186

Thalassemias (Continued)

pharmacologic upgrading of fetal hemoglobin synthesis, 188-189 splenectomy, 187 supportive care, 187-188 pathogenesis, 182 sequelae, 184 P-thalassemia intermedia, 190 P-thalassemia minor or trait, 190-191 differential diagnosis, 421 Theophylline, treatment for erythrocytosis, 205 Therapeutic trial, criterion in iron-deficiency anemia, 39

Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD

(Wolfram) syndrome, 48t, 64-65 Thoracic emergencies, 700-701 Thrombocythemia, essential (ET), 281-282 conditions associated with, 281t diagnostic criteria, 281

differentiation from reactive thrombocytosis, 282t treatment, 282 Thrombocytopenia cytokines in treatment of, 280 heparin-induced, 264, 354-355 hyporegenerative, 17 neonatal, 269-280 amegakaryocytic, 277, 278t, 279-280 autoimmune, 271-272 alloimmune, 272-274 congenital with bilateral absence of radii (TAR

syndrome), 277, 279 hypoplastic thrombocytopenia with microcephaly, 279 without anomalies, 277 with radio-ulnar synostosis (ATRUS), 279 thrombocytopenia agenesis of corpus callosum syndrome, 279 thrombocytopenia associated with trisomy syndrome, 280 thrombocytopenia in rubella syndrome, 279 bone marrow disorders, 280 causes, 269-270t diagnostic approach to, 271f incidence, 269

inherited thrombocytopenia autosomal, 276-277 sex-linked, 276 megakaryocytic, 271-276

associated with erythroblastosis fetalis, 274

causes, 269-270t disseminated intravascular coagulation, 270t, 275

drug-induced thrombocytopenia in the mother, 257-258t, 275 giant hemangioma, 275-276 idiopathic (autoimmune) purpura in passive transfer of platelet antibody from mother, 271-272 infection, 274-275 isoimmune (alloimmune) purpura, 272-274

Thrombocytopenic purpura amegakaryocytic (TAR syndrome) causes, 270t differentiating from Fanconi anemia, 109t immune, idiopathic (ITP), 250-263 causes of based on pathophysiology, 251-253t based on platelet size, 251t characteristics of, 250

clinical features of acute and chronic ITP, 253f, 254

diagnostic criteria, 257 drug causes, 257-258t incidence, 253

intracranial hemorrhage in ITP, 259t investigations in patients with purpura,

256-257 laboratory findings, 256 pathogenesis platelet antibodies, 253 platelet survival, 254 prognosis, 263 signs, 256 symptoms clinical approach to, 255f internal organs, 255 mucous membranes, 255 skin, 254-255 treatment, 258-263, 259t anti-D therapy, 260-261 of children with life-threatening hemorrhage, 263 gammaglobulin, intravenous, 260 plasmapheresis, 262 platelet transfusions, 262 rituximab, 261-262 splenectomy, 262-263 steroid, 258-259 secondary, 263-269 autoimmune disorders, 264 cyanotic congenital heart disease, 268-269 disseminated intravascular coagulation, 265 drug-induced, 265

hemolytic uremic syndrome, 265-266 heparin-induced, 264 HIV-1 infection, 263-264 hypersplenism, 269

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, 265 thrombopoietin deficiency, 269 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura syndrome, 266-268, 266t Thrombocytosis, 280-290 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 281-282 conditions associated with, 2811 diagnostic criteria, 281

differentiation from reactive thrombocytosis, 282t treatment, 282 Thrombolytic therapy, 358-360 Thrombophilia, 328-330, 348 Thrombosis. See also Antithrombotic agents antiphospholipid syndrome, 338-343 antithrombotic therapy in special conditions, 360-362

arterial, predisposing causes of, 333, 334-335t, 335-338

clinical manifestations of hypercoagulable states, 330t laboratory findings in hypercoagulable states, 331t mechanisms of, in inherited thrombophilia,

329-330 venous, 330, 332 detection of, 333t diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, 333t predisposing factors, 331-332t treatment, 333t Thrombotic disorders. See also Thrombosis hereditary, 343-348 in newborns, 348-351 acquired, 349-350 congenital, 348-349

diagnosis and treatment of neonatal throm-

boembolism, 351t risk factors for perinatal stroke, 350-3511 Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura syndrome,

266-268, 266t, 339 Thromboxane synthetase deficiency, 287 Thyroid gland deficiency, late effects of childhood cancer, 764 hematologic manifestations of disease, 75 hyperthyroidism, in mothers, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, 280 values, 799t Thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency, late effects of childhood cancer, 7631, 764, 765t Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), 337, 348, 358 Tissues, cellular changes in iron-deficiency anemia, 38t

Torch infections, hematologic manifestations, 83 Transcobalamin I, (R-binder) partial deficiency, 52, 53t, 56t

Transcobalamin II, abnormalities, vitamin B12

deficiency, 52, 531, 56t Transfusions. See Blood component therapy Transient erythroblastopenia, differentiating from Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), 97-99, 98t, 104 clinical features, 104 Transient ischemic attacks, antithrombotic therapy, 361

Transplancental fetomaternal blood loss, 12 Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency, 153 Trisomy 21 abnormality in childhood MDS, 394 Trisomy 8 abnormality in childhood MDS and JMML, 397

Trypanosomiasis, hematologic manifestations, 85 Tuberculosis, hematologic manifestations, 84 Tumor lysis syndrome, 696t, 697-700 Tumor markers, 650-651, 803-804

deviation of normal serum AFP in infants, 651t staging systems, 652t Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), 399 Turcot Syndrome, 512

Twin-to-twin transfusion, and prenatal blood loss, 15

Typhlitis, 701-702

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