Acute leukemias represent a clonal expansion and arrest at a specific stage of normal myeloid or lymphoid hematopoiesis. It constitutes 97% of all childhood leukemias and consists of the following types:

• Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)—75%

• Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), also known as acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL)*—20%

• Acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL)—<0.5%

• Acute mixed-lineage leukemia (AMLL).

Chronic myeloid leukemias constitute 3% of all childhood leukemias (Chapter 13) and consist of:

1. Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph1-positive) myeloid leukemia

2. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).

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